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Study Guide for Psych Exam One

Study Guide for Psych Exam One - Study Guide for Psych Exam...

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Study Guide for Psych Exam One Scientific Study : empirical evidence, careful measurement, observation and or experiments Behavior : directly observable and otherwise Mental Processes : thoughts, emotions, problem solving, etc. History of Psychology -Hippocrates (430 BC) temperaments and personality -Descartes (1637) animal spirits -Lock (1690) tabula rosa (blank slate) precursor to ongoing argument about free will -Gall (1807) phrenology: study of the brain -WILHELM WUNDT: in 1879 Wundt established the first lab in Leipzig, Germany designed to study psychology (structuralism) Roots of Psychology -Structuralism (Wundt, Titcher) -Analyze sensations, feelings into basic elements -Used ‘trained introspection” to study -Tried to discover what the basic building blocks for human life were (emotion, Sensation, etch) -What happens to an organism in different situations -Functionalism (James) -Focused on the purpose of the behavior -How and why an organism does something -“Steam of consciousness” vs. “Train of thought” Psychoanalysis (Freud) -Theory of personality emphasizing unconscious motives and conflicts -Shifted from sensation perception and consciousness to personality Current Perspectives - Neuroscience : attribute causes of behavior to biological causes - Psychodynamic: influences of inner conflicts on observable behavior -Very different in focus and often has difficulty with empirical evidence -Behavioral : focuses exclusively on observable behavior, consequences and predeterminants -Cognitive : focuses on how people learn, think, understand, remember, forget, etc - Humanistic : emphasis on FREE WILL, natural tendency to be in control of our lives and maximize our potential Education of Psychologists -Doctoral Degree (Ph D, Psy D) 3-5 years after bachelors -Licensure of clinical/counseling or school -Masters degree- 2 years after bachelors -Bachelors Degree
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Subfields of Psychology -Foundations -Experimental: study process of sensing, perceiving, learning -Developmental: study how people grow and change across a lifespan -Psycical and Mental Health -Health Psychology: relationship between psychological factors and physical ailments -Clinical Psychology: investigates diagnosis and treatment of mental disorders -Social Psychology: studies how people are affected by others -Cross Cultural Psych: focuses on similarities and differences in psychological functioning across cultures and ethnic groups Newer Frontiers -Neuropsychology: focuses on relationships between biological factors and social disorders -Evolutionary Psychology: examines the influence of our genetic heritage on our behavior -Forensic Psychology: legal issues, competency, legal sanity, profiling Identify questions -- formulate and explanation, specify a theory, formulate hypothesis-- carry out research- select a research method- collect data- analyze data Theory: broad explanations and predictions concerning phenomena of interest Hypothesis: a prediction stated in a way that allows it to be tested
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Study Guide for Psych Exam One - Study Guide for Psych Exam...

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