Sociology Review - Sociology Review Chapter 1 2 Summarize the 4 main schools of sociological theory 1 Functionalism(VALUES a sociological school of

Sociology Review - Sociology Review Chapter 1 2 Summarize...

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So ciology Review: Chapter 1& 2 Summarize the 4 main schools of sociological theory? 1.Functionalism (VALUES)-a sociological school of thought that stresses howhuman behaviour is governed by social structures that are based mainly on shared values and contribute to social stability.2.Conflict Theory (INEQUALITY)-focuses on how large social structures suchas relationships among classes, produce social stability in some circumstances and social changes in others3.Symbolic Interactionism (MEANING)-highlights how personal communication in face to face settings creates subjective meanings that people attach their social circumstances4.Feminism (PATRIARCHY)-claiming that male domination and female subordination are determined not by biological necessity but by structures of power and social convention (macro and micro)Social Structures (The Sociological Imagination)Microstructures -Patterns of intimate social relations formed during face-to-face interactions. Ex. Families and friends Mesostructures-Patterns of social relations in organizations that involve people who are often NOT intimately acquainted and who often do not interact face-to-face ex. Colleges, government bureaucracies Macrostructures-Overarching patterns of social relations that lie above and beyond Mesostructures (above one’s circles of intimates and acquaintances) ex. Social classes and patriarchy Global Structures-Patterns of social relations that lie outside and above the national level. Ex. Economic relations among countries Origins of Sociological ImaginationScientific Revolution- Beginning in Europe about 1550 the creation method of inquiry encouraging the view that sound conclusions about the workings of the world must be based on solid evidence not jut speculation.Democratic Revolution- The process, beginning about 1750 in which the citizens of the United State, France and other countries broadened their participation in government, thereby suggesting that people can organize society and solve problems.Industrial Revolution- Beginning in Britain in the 1780s a process of rapid economic transformation that involved the large-scale application of science an technology to industrial processes, the creation of factories, and the formation of the working class.FOUNDERS
Emile Durkheim (Structural Functionalism) - Argued that human behavior is influenced by “social facts” or the social relations in which people are embedded. - Early functionalist argument - Social solidarity : group members share beliefs and values, intensity and frequency of their interaction - Functionalism incorporates the following features: 1. Social structure: Human behavior is gathered by stable patterns of social relations. Functionalists are interested in macrostructures. 2. Equilibrium: Functionalists suggest that re-establishing equilibrium can best solve most social problems. 3. Manifest functions: Visible and intended effects of social structures 4. Latent functions: Invisible and unintended effects of social structures. Karl Marx (Conflict Theory) (macro) -

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