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PSYC 001 -- STUDY GUIDE FOR EXAM III WHEN: MONDAY MARCH 31 from 9:10-10:00 WHERE: PA 101 BE SURE TO BRING AT LEAST TWO #2 LEAD PENCILS TO THE EXAM. MAKE SURE YOU KNOW YOUR LEHIGH STUDENT ID NUMBER. PERSONALITY (CH 12): Psychoanalytic approaches : Id-Governed by inborn instinctual drives, especially those related to sex, aggression-Obeys the pleasure principle Ego-Induces people to act with reason and deliberation, conform to outside world -Obeys the reality principle Superego-Motivates people to act in an ideal fashion, according to moral customs -Obeys the idealistic principle Pleasure principle seeking immediate gratification Reality principle Idealistic principle-striving for perfection Libido- sexual desire Fixation-the state in which an individual becomes obsessed with an attachment to another human, an animal, or an inanimate object The defense mechanisms: Repression Denial-Refusing to accept that the feeling is present or that the event occurred-A very primitive mechanism Projection-Attributing one's undesirable traits or actions to others, so they become the problem instead of you Reaction formation-Taking actions opposite to one's feelings in order to deny the reality of the feelings Sublimation-The most mature mechanism Redirecting anxiety-causing impulses into socially acceptable actions The psychosexual stages: First year: Oral stage -Pleasure comes from sucking, putting things in mouth -Infant learns to trust in others, esp. for food -Fixation at this stage can cause overeating, smoking, nail-biting Second year: Anal stage-Pleasure comes from retaining or passing feces-Fixation at this stage can cause excessive neatness or excessive messiness Ages 3 to 5: Phallic stage -Pleasure comes from self-stimulation of genitals -Oedipus complex -Freud believed sex-role identification occurred -Mechanisms included castration anxiety (boys) & penis envy (girls) -Fixation here can cause relationship, sexual problems -Sexual feelings suppressed
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Ages 6 to Puberty: Latency -A time of focus on achievement -Sexual feelings suppressed -Libido is channeled into mastery activities -Freud thought little of interest happened here Puberty to adulthood: Genital stage -Mature sexual relationships with opposite sex - The time of mature personality, intimacy with others Personality assessment: projective techniques-Attempts to interpret symbolism in behavior to understand underlying unconscious motives Rorschach ink blot test-Ambiguous stimuli-Person is asked to report what they see TAT-Thematic Apperception Test -Person is asked to tell a story about the “hero” in the picture Evaluation of psychoanalytic approach-Extremely influential, but not accepted by many modern psychologists Trait approaches : Trait-A characteristic of an individual, describing a habitual way of behaving,
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