Review sheet - PP = Problems from Philosophy, TW=Truth
about the World, V = video in class Youtube play list.
Know Socrates three arguments against escaping prison (PP, 3-8; TW, Ch 2; V2)
Know Aquinas' First Cause Argument (PP, 21-2; TW, 2nd way , p. 61; V5). How can one decide what the right thing to do is? Popular opinion is easily swayed and biased The Sanctity of Law- it would be a disaster of the state did not exist therefore we should not do things that destroy the state, it would destroy the state if we did not general obey the law therefore we should in generak obey the law Analogical Argument for Obedience- child relationship to parent as a citizen is to the state, owed state respect like child must obey parent obligation to state is even stronger must except what state says because we are indebted to the state The Social Contract- benefits of citizenship from the state causes obligation to obey law in return, no formal or written agreement Living in state and enjoying benefits is the agreement
Know Aquinas' argument from Contingency and Necessity (TW, 3rd way, 61-2; V5) Contingent- something not necessary. Something that exists but might not have He wants to know could it be that everything is contingent? Every contingent thing has an origin, where there was a time when it didn’t exist and then it did exist. If everything was contingent then there must have been a time when nothing existed however nothing can come from nothing. If everything was contingent there would be no existence Since the universe does exist there could not have been a time in which nothing existed There must be a being that has no origin and is not contingent but has always existed and that being is called God For anything to exist at all something had to always exist and that eternal necessary being is God
Know Russell's objections to the First Cause Argument (TW, 108-9, V6) Argument is invalid the premises don’t support the conclusion because it can look like premise one and conclusion contradict itself, everything must