Philosophy Midterm Study Guide

Philosophy Midterm Study Guide - P100, Buckner Spring 2008...

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P100, Buckner Spring 2008 Midterm Exam Review Sheet Part 1: Definitions and Short Answer 8-10 of the following terms will appear on the exam; you will be required to define the concept or theory and state its importance in the course and/or answer short comprehension questions on each topic. For terms marked with an asterisk (*), you should also be prepared to give an example. Rationalism: Rationalism consists of three major claims. First is the Intuition/Deduction thesis. Intuition is a form of rational insight. Intellectually grasping a proposition, we just "see" it to be true in such a way as to form a true, warranted belief in it. Deduction is a process in which we derive conclusions from intuited premises through valid arguments, ones in which the conclusion must be true if the premises are true. Next is the Innate Concept thesis. According to the Innate Concept thesis, some of our concepts are not gained from experience. They are part of our rational nature in such a way that, while sense experiences may trigger a process by which they are brought to consciousness, experience does not provide the concepts or determine the information they contain. Lastly is the Innate Knowledge thesis. he Innate Knowledge thesis asserts the existence of knowledge gained a priori , independently of experience. Reason is the basic form of all knowledge, and the senses are deceptive. Empiricism: Empiricism is the philosophical concept that experience, which is based on observation and experimentation, is the source of knowledge. According to empiricism, only the information that a person gathers with his or her senses should be used to make decisions, without regard to reason or to either religious or political teachings. The senses are the basic source of all knowledge, supplying the resources which make thought possible. We are born blank slates. Epistemology : Epistemology or theory of knowledge is a branch of philosophy concerned with the nature and scope of knowledge. Metaphysics: Metaphysics is the branch of philosophy that investigates principles of reality transcending those of any particular science. Theory of Forms: Plato's Theory of Forms [1] asserts that Forms (or Ideas), and not the material world of change known to us through sensation, possess the highest and most fundamental kind of reality.
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Theory of Recollection: The theory of recollection, according to Socrates, means that before we are born we possess all knowledge. We are never taught anything new, but instead reminded of things we already know. Socrates deduces this from the argument that the soul is immortal. The idea that knowledge is innate. Accidental property*: The accidental property is the property which has no necessary connection to the essence of the thing being described. Essential property *:
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This test prep was uploaded on 04/22/2008 for the course PHIL 100 taught by Professor Buckner during the Fall '08 term at Indiana.

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Philosophy Midterm Study Guide - P100, Buckner Spring 2008...

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