1/15/08 notes

1/15/08 notes - INR3004 8:00:00 AM I Basic...

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INR3004 15/01/2008 08:00:00 I. Basic Definitions (Political) states – ex. U.S., China, Costa Rica o well-defined territory, population, government some political states have territorial disputes (India/China) o sovereignty o recognition As long as the other states treat you as a member of the  international community (i.e. a state), you are a state. “Quasi-states” o has most of these qualities, but not all of them o usually missing #3 – recognition ex. Palestinian Authority, Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus S. Ossetia, Abkhazia (was part of Georgia, ethnically Russian,  autonomous but not a state) Transnistria (broke off of Moldova) Puntland (broke off of Somalia) Nation o Identity groups (“imagined communities”) Often (not always) based on actual differences Not all differences produce nations Read atlas page 28-29 Charismatic leaders can “create” differences
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o Nationalism – feelings of identity/loyalty to a group Can be focused on the state or other nations Why loyal to group over state? o “Minorities at Risk”: 313 politically active identity groups in 119 states o Different cultures: 62% different from dominant group in 1+ ways (59%  religion, 55% race, 34% language) o Perception of inequalities: 72% economic, 82% political o Lack of assimilation into state (or repression) o Active nationalist leaders (Milosevic) II. States with Multiple Nations Single political state with multiple identity groups within o Ex: Iraq (60% Shi’ia, 20% Sunni, 20% Kurdish) Sunni Arabs had the majority of power under Saddam; today? o Ex: Lebanon – 1932 Census (55% Christian, 35-40% Muslim, 5%  Druse) First post-independence government was based on power- sharing among different identity groups Demographics changed over next 50-55 years, Christians and  Muslims pulled even Civil war (1975-1990) produced 1989 Taif Accord, adjusted  balance to 1:1 balance in parliament and cabinet, more power to  Muslim PM, etc.) Impact of this Context o Government has to be careful Risk of distrust, hatred, rivalry among groups (especially if there  are political/economic inequalities) Even riskier when neighboring states include your minorities o Possible consequences of mismanagement
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Internal unrest conflict (Basques), seeking autonomy or even  secession Civil war (Lebanon), Genocide (Rwanda) External intervention (Turkey into Cyprus) Peaceful disagreement secessionism (Quebec) Quebec independence referenda 80-85% Francophone until 1995, there was mounting interest in  Quebecois secession with 49.4% in favor of  secession; 2007: Parti Quebecois won 28% of 
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This note was uploaded on 04/22/2008 for the course INR 3004 taught by Professor Hensel during the Spring '08 term at FSU.

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1/15/08 notes - INR3004 8:00:00 AM I Basic...

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