Bone/Muscle Lab

Bone/Muscle Lab - An Analysis of Bone/Muscle Movement...

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An Analysis of Bone/Muscle Movement Introduction Bone is considered to be a vital part of an animal’s locomotion along with its interaction with muscle. Bone consists of Calcium and phosphate, which give the bone its strength. Bones also contain living cells called osteocytes, which are hollow and lighter than other cells. Bone marrow exists inside of the bone and synthesizes red blood cells. Cartilage is a firm and flexible connective tissue and gives support to the bones. When the bone and muscle work together to provide locomotion for an animal’s body, that interaction forms biological lever machines. These machines consist of bone conveying forces that act on a joint. From the function of the lever machines, it is possible to determine the torque produced by evaluating the product of the force that the muscle exerts and the length of the bone lever. Torque is a rotating force, a force that causes twisting or turning and is also the ability to overcome resistance. Torque is equated by the equation T = FD, where F is the force the muscle exerts and D is the length of the bone lever. There are three types of muscles in vertebrate animals: cardiac, smooth, and skeletal. Cardiac muscle cells are present in the heart. When they contract, blood is able to drive through the body. Smooth muscle cells have one nucleus and push food throughout the digestive tract. Skeletal muscles are voluntarily controlled and are made up of multinucleate muscle fiber cells. Each muscle fiber is then made up of myofibrils, which are made up of sarcomeres. Areas of the skeletal muscle include the origin, insertion, and belly. The origin point is attached by tendons to a stationary bone. The insertion point is attached by tendons to movable bone, the opposite of the origin. The belly is the center of the muscle that contains contracting fibers, which pull the bone attached at muscle insertion. In this experiment, we will study bone and muscle movement by measuring muscle force, power efficiency, speed efficiency, and the work output of a muscle. The kinematic model represents the lever system of the lower leg and foot. It is based on the equation F1D1 = F2D2, which represents the equilibrium state when the torque produced is equal to the opposing torque. F1 is the force produced by the gastrocnemius muscle, D1 is the distance from the ankle joint to
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Bone/Muscle Lab - An Analysis of Bone/Muscle Movement...

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