A nurse is checking laboratory values on a client who has crackles in the lower lobes

A nurse is checking laboratory values on a client who has crackles in the lower lobes

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A nurse is checking laboratory values on a client who has crackles in the lower lobes, 2+ pitting edema, and dyspnea with minimal exertion. Which laboratory value does the nurse expect to be abnormal? a) C-reactive protein (CRP) b) B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) c) Platelet count d) Potassium B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) Explanation: The client's symptoms suggest heart failure. BNP is a neurohormone that's released from the ventricles when the ventricles experience increased pressure and stretch, such as in heart failure. A BNP level greater than 51 pg/ml is commonly associated with mild heart failure. As the BNP level increases, the severity of heart failure increases. Potassium levels aren't affected by heart failure. CRP is an indicator of inflammation. It's used to help predict the risk of coronary artery disease. There is no indication that the client has an increased CRP. There is no indication that the client is experiencing bleeding abnormalities, such as those seen with an abnormal platelet count. The electrical conduction system of the heart has several components, all of which are instrumental in maintaining polarization, depolarization, and repolarization of cardiac tissue. Which of the conductive structures is known as the pacemaker of the heart? a) Sinoatrial node b) Bundle of His c) Atrioventricular node d) Bundle branches Sinoatrial node Explanation: The SA node is an area of nerve tissue located in the posterior wall of the right atrium. The SA node is called the pacemaker of the heart because it initiates the electrical impulses that cause the atria and ventricles to contract.
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*A 60-year-old client is returning to her cardiologist for the results of her cardiac testing. Her cardiologist explains that he is concerned about her low cardiac output, which will increase the workload on her heart. In his explanation, if the client's workload does not lessen, via medication, her heart muscle will wear out. What is the average cardiac output per minute? a) 8L b) 10L c) 5L d) 6L 5L Explanation: In a healthy adult, cardiac output ranges from 4 to 8 L/min (the average is approximately 5 L/min). During the auscultation of heart, what is revealed by an atrial gallop? a) Hypertensive heart disease b) Diseased heart valves c) Heart failure d) Turbulent blood flow Hypertensive heart disease Explanation: Auscultation of the heart requires familiarization with normal and abnormal heart sounds. An extra sound just before S1 is an S4 heart sound, or atrial gallop. An S4 sound often is associated with hypertensive heart disease. A sound that follows S1 and S2 is called an S3 heart sound or a ventricular gallop. An S3 heart sound is often an indication of heart failure in an adult. In addition to heart sounds, auscultation may reveal other abnormal sounds, such as murmurs and clicks, caused by turbulent blood flow through diseased heart valves.
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