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1 - Molecular Models

1 - Molecular Models - Molecular Models Beyond Lewis Dot...

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Molecular Models Beyond Lewis Dot Structures
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Molecular Structure & Bonding A molecular structure, unlike a simple molecular formula, indicates the exact 3- D nature of the molecule. It indicates which atoms are bonded to which atoms, and the 3-D orientation of those atoms relative to each other.
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Molecular Structure Two issues: What is stuck to what? (Lewis Dot Structure) How are they oriented? (3-D Model)
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Two BIG Rules 1. Total # of valence electrons – the total number of valence electrons must be accounted for, no extras, none missing. 2. Octet Rule – every atom should have an octet (8) electrons associated with it. Hydrogen should only have 2 (a duet).
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Total Number of Valence Electrons The total number of available valence electrons is just the sum of the number of valence electrons that each atom possesses (ignoring d-orbital electrons) Using SO 4 2- as an example, what is the total number of valence electrons?
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Sulfur is a 3s 2 3p 4 valence – 6 valence electrons Oxygen is a 2s 2 2p 4 valence – 6 valence electrons SO 4 2- S = 6 e - 4 x O = 4 x 6 e - = 24 e - 2- = 2 extra electrons Total valence electrons = 6 + 24 + 2 = 32 electrons
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Drawing Lewis Dot Structures 1. Determine the total number of valence electrons. 2. Determine which atom is the “central” atom.
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