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U.S. History Terms Great Columbian / Biological Exchange : Exchange of plants and animals between the New World and Europe following the discovery of America in 1492.Christopher Columbus : Italian explorer, sailed from Spain in 1492 and reached Americas, greatly increased European awareness of the North American ContinentBartolomeo de las Casas : 16th Century Spanish Historian, Dominican Friar, "Protector of the Indians;" opposed atrocities by colonizers on Indigenous peopleSpanish empire : Empire control in Mexico, South America, and Florida, religious empire; Franciscans + mission system, defensive buffers vs. English, French, and Russians. Economic empire.French empire : Empire control in Canada, Ohio, and Mississippi River Valley with Louisiana. Religious: Jesuits. Positive indigenous relations. Fur trade. Coureurs du bois.English/British Empire : Exhibited control in the form of dominions, colonies, mandates, and territories. Queen Elizabeth I was a prominent ruler during the colonial period of this empire. French Rivalry + engaged in Columbian Exchange.Jamestown : First permanent English settlement; located in Virginia. Founded by London CompanyMayflower Compact : Pilgrims/Separatists agreement: agreement to obey laws created by the community and a profession of allegiance to the kingChesapeake colonies : Term for the colonies of Maryland and VirginiaVirginia colony : This colony was founded in 1607. First settlement was Jamestown. Charter to stock company/royal. Tobacco was vital to its survival.1619 : The year when the first U.S representative assembly was established - House of Burgesses (Jamestown, Virginia)Bacon's rebellion : Colonial uprising that took place in 1676 in the Virginia colony, led by Nathaniel Bacon. Virginians resented William Berkeley's friendly policy towards Native Americans. This was the first rebellion in American colonies in which discontented frontiersmen took part.Maryland colony : Founded in 1634 by Lord Baltimore, founded to be a place for persecuted Catholics to find refuge, a safe haven, act of toleration
Toleration Act : Guaranteed religious toleration to trinitarian Christians, but decreedthe death penalty to Jews and atheists and others who didn't believe in the divinity of Jesus Christ,New England colonies : The term for the colonies of Massachusetts bay, Rhode Island, and New HampshireMassachusetts Bay Colony : Colony founded in 1630 by John Winthrop, part of the Great Puritan Migration, founded by puritans. Had a theocratic republic. "City upon ahill"John Winthrop : Puritan governor of Massachusetts Bay Colony. Speaker of "City upon a hill""City upon a hill" : Said by Winthrop; refers to the idea that Puritan colonists emigrating to the New World were part of a special pact with God to create a holy community: a model society to the world/moral commonwealthAnne Hutchinson : Woman who challenged Purtian religous authorities in Massachusetts Bay. Puritan authorities banished her because she challenged religious doctrine, gender roles. clerical authority, and claimed to have had revelations from GodKing Philip's war : 1675. longest and bloodiest conflict between settlers and natives