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IS_220_March_19_Meiji_Nakae_Chomin-1 - IS 220 303 Meiji...

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IS 220 March 19, 2008 303 Meiji Japan Objectives of Meiji government: Establish authority/ stability (stay in power) Maintain independence from West ==>* Create modern state (=Westernize?) "Fukoku kyohei" (Prosperous nation, strong military) Meiji Leaders (oligarchs) – younger, enlightened members of the samurai class. Ito Hirobumi (Choshu) Yamagata Arinori (Choshu) Matsukata Masayoshi (Satsuma) Okuma Shigenobu (Hizen) Itagaki Taisuke (Tosa) *All young, in 30s, from relatively few han (Satsuma and Choshu, mainly), had experience in local han government, middle to lower level samurai origins. Meiji Japan: The first year 1868 Jan 3 Restoration Proclamation 16 yr old emperor Meiji By March, had defeated Tokugawa troops (Sporadic resistance continued end of 1868) April Imperial Rescript (Charter Oath) Sept Decision to move Emperor to Edo (renamed Tokyo) Meiji Japan Creating a New Japan, Dismantling the old 1869-1971 Establish central authority (get rid of bakuhan system) Mar 1869 Satsuma and Choshu turn over land registers to the new government. Others followed their example. By 1871 250 han had been turned into 50 prefectures; Daimyo "bought off" with money and governorships. 1870-76 Dismantle samurai social /political system The problem of the samurai Government unable to afford Military based on common people was better (modern theory) 1870 first given chance to take lump sum of 6 years; 1871 allowed no swords 1873 Universal conscription (new Army) 1876 forced to take govt bonds 1876 No swords Learning from abroad 1871-73 Iwakura mission Embassy of 100 or so people visit U.S. and Europe (Included Iwakura, Okubo, Kido, Ito) Purpose:
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· Renegotiate unequal treaties · Develop new vision for Japan - *Especially impressed by idea of progressivism. Cultural reforms Getting rid of pornography, public bathing, tattooing, topknots…. Meiji government Reforms Universal education 1872 Tokyo University 1877 Conscription (modern military) 1873 Monetary and banking mid 1870s (Tax system based on assessed value of land) Infrastructure Railways 1872 Postal service 1871 Free exercise of religion 1873 Industry support *** Meiji Constitution 1889-1890 Education Early years: *Fukuzawa Yukichi, achieving social equality through education. Varley p. 243 Sending students abroad Foreign instructors 1871 Ministry of Education Modeled on French system, highly centralized (local finance, but central control of textbooks, teacher education, curriculum) Ambitious plan (1872) 8 universities, 256 middle schools, 53,670 elementary (However, by 1900 only 2 universities, 222 middle schools) compulsory education (4 years) By 1900 almost all children were attending 1907 increased to 6 years Purpose of schools:
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  • Winter '08
  • Filler
  • japan, Meiji Restoration, Meiji government, Meiji leaders, Meiji Japan Objectives, Meiji government Reforms

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