IS_220_March_28_Kokoro_Empire - IS 220 Introduction to...

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IS 220 Introduction to Japan March 28, 2008 March 28 Natsume Sōseki, Kokoro Response paper #2 March 31 World War II Morton, Modern Japanese Culture , Sel. (ERes) April 2 Dower, War Without Mercy , sel. (ERes) April 4 Ishikawa Jun, “Mars’s Song,” (ERes) Kojima Nobuo, “The Rifle” (ERes) April 7 Postwar Japan Varley 304-351 April 9 Film: Ikiru The Expansion of the Japanese Empire Japanese concern with Korea: partially defensive, partially offensive. Japan wanted access to Korea’s coal and mineral resources, but also feared Korea being occupied by a Western power. Wanted to either annex Korea or reform it and ensure its independence. Korea – officially a suzerain state to Qing China. Korean imperial family and court closely tied to China. 1876 – Japan forced Korea to declare independence from China and open itself to trade. 1884 Bloody coup-d’etat. 1894-5 China sends troops to put down a rebellion; Japan responds by sending troops. After much back-and-forth Japan seizes Seoul and overthrows the government. Japan takes Port Arthur (massacre reported) and victories at Weihaiwei. Japan annexes Taiwan but is forced by France, Russia, and Germany to give up the Liaodong Peninsula – creates desire for revenge. Russia especially establishes posts in Liaodong peninsula. Japan tries to obtain control over Korea in return for letting Russia control Manchuria/Liaodong. Blockade of Port Arthur, Battle of Mukden, Battle of Tsushima. Russian fleet destroyed. Japanese casualties 47,000 (80,000 incl. disease) Japanese dominance of Korea recognized, Korea annexed in 1910 Treaty of Portsmouth, negotiated by Theodore Roosevelt Japanese anger over conditions: no territorial gain, no monetary reparations. 1890 opening of the first Diet – party politics begins, but not truly “populist”
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General Nogi (d. 1912) The attack against Port Arthur quickly turned into the lengthy Siege of Port Arthur , a dilemma lasting from 1 August 1904 to 2 January 1905 , costing the Japanese massive losses, including Nogi’s second son. Due to the mounting casualties and failure of Nogi to overcome Port Arthur’s defenses, there was mounting pressure within the Japanese government and military to relieve him of command. However, in an unprecedented action, Emperor Meiji spoke out during the Supreme War Council meeting, defending Nogi and demanding that he be kept in command.[ citation needed ] After the fall of Port Arthur, Nogi was regarded as a national hero. He led his 3rd Army against the Russian forces at the final Battle of Mukden , ending the land combat phase of operations of the war.[ citation needed ] At the end of the war, Nogi made a report directly to Emperor Meiji during a Gozen Kaigi . When explaining battles of the Siege of Port Arthur in detail, he broke down and wept, apologizing for the 56,000 lives lost in that campaign and asking to be allowed to kill himself in atonement. Emperor Meiji told him that suicide was unacceptable, as all responsibility for the war was due to imperial orders, and that Nogi must remain alive, at least as long as he himself lived.
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IS_220_March_28_Kokoro_Empire - IS 220 Introduction to...

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