IS_220_March_21_Meiji_Higuchi_Ichiyo

IS_220_March_21_Meiji_Higuchi_Ichiyo - IS 220 March 2007 10...

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IS 220 March, 2007 10 March 17 Encounter with the West Varley 235-270 March 19 Nakae Ch min, selections (ERes) ō March 21 Higuchi Ichiy , ō Troubled Waters (ERes) 11 March 24 Modern Japan Varley 271-303 March 26 Natsume S seki, ō Kokoro 1-124 March 28 Natsume S seki, ō Kokoro Response paper #2 125-248
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IS 220 March 21, 2008 The Meiji Restoration Forces from Western Japan (Satsuma and Choshu) rejected the Shogun’s cooperation with the west. “Revere the Emperor, expel the foreigners” 1868 – Restoration forces took Edo Castle, though rebellions continued for next couple decades. Emperor moved to Tokyo. Charter Oath – vague promise to reform, modernize. Wakon-yosai. Japanese spirit, Western learning. Decision was made to commit fully to industrialization. - Manufacture, mining, technology - A modern draft military - Constitutional monarchy, centralized government. In reality an “oligarchy.” 47 ken (prefectures) - A modern educational system; universal compulsory education for boys and girls - Included assimilation of culture – music, literature, even religion (to an extent) - Abolishment of Edo class system: new system – kazoku (daimyo and court aristocrats), shizoku (upper-class samurai), heimin (permitted to have family names); later shin-heimin - Land reform - individual taxation of landowners. Tenant farming continued. - Encouragement of capitalim because it worked. Oligarchic government – Ito Hirobumi, first PM Prostitution – “voluntary” prostitution permitted; publicly recognized houses of prostitution 1900 received right to leave brothels, but needed to repay debts Miraculous results of Meiji restoration: Japan retained sovereignty 95% literacy Armed forces Most developed manufacturing and technological economy of any non-western country Most democratic parliamentary system/ Constitution1889, diet, 2 parties What happened to the samurai and other leaders? Daimyo – given titles; relinquished land; encouraged to move to Tokyo 1880s – opposition to centralized government – democracy, equality, Freedom and People’s Rights Movement Peasants, villagers – often moved to manufacturing, mining because wages good, but
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conditions terrible. Samurai – some successfully made transition as bureaucrats, educators, politicians. Others slipped into poverty with their classical Chinese learning, now out of date, and lack of finances (government gradually reduced, then eliminated samurai stipend). Villagers, aristocrats alike supported central government Success of Meiji – 1. Structures of Tokugawa period – literacy, embryo capitalist system (merchant society) 2. Anthropological explanation – homogeneity, group-oriented society – could mobilize, meet Western challenge 3. Political – extraordinary, pragmatic political leaders. 4. Cultural pattern of borrowing 5. Japan was lucky! Nothing West wanted – gold, oil, market for opium, agriculture, location Implications for literature: 1. Literacy and infrastructure for publishing enabled the creation of literature 2. Independent writers – not tied to politics or religion 3. Not much censorship (post-publication) 4.
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