Final Review - Charles I (1625-1649): Dismissed Parliament,...

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Charles I (1625-1649): Dismissed Parliament, called it “era of personal rule,” alienated English and Scottish by raising taxes without permission of Parliament, infuriated Puritans by stressing Anglicanism, angered merchants by selling and giving out monopolies, even at death claimed his innocence, said Parliament had declared war on him not vice versa, also said that Rump Parliament had no right to charge him because “Rump Parliament has no authority over this land” charged him with only having personal interests in mind, which were against public interest, Edward Coke (1552-1634): king is becoming “servant” of the people, Magna Carta in 1215 signed by John II showed obligation of king to be a contractual kingship, wrote that should follow this because “old ways are the safest ways”, respect historic laws and you will see there is no room for absolute monarchy Petition of Right (1628): challenged Charles I power to rule, levy taxes w/o Parliament, a statement of a person’s rights that the king should honor Puritans: began rebellion against Charles I in 1639 again in 1642 for trying to revert to English Church extravagance, after Cromwell in charge wanted abolishment of gambling, dancing, theatre, etc. but Cromwell worried would alienate too many Regicide: Killing of the king, Charles I was executed for atrocities committed upon England, most citizens appalled by the idea Oliver Cromwell (1599-1658): began New Model Army, 1648 took control of London and began the Rump Parliament, ordered trial of Charles where a list of charges against King were read off, Parliament after was called “Republic Commonwealth” 1653 named Lord Protector of Commonwealth, wanted to deal with both Royalists and Radicals but not able to do so, Royalists wanted restoration of Stuart monarchy w/ Charles II, 1653 Cromwell tried to take Caribbean, failed, believed it to be a sign that he did not have God’s protection, Levellers/ G. Winstanley: wanted to get rid of all property, lords, everyone to be equal, wanted religious tolerance, free trade without monopolies, a written constitution to maintain limited monarchy, G.W. was close to communist, hostile to giving privileges to anyone, angry with Rump Parliament for not pushing equality, should redistribute land to peasants, get rid of lawyers, landlords, high clergy, RADICAL GROUP DIDN’T GET MUCH SUPPORT Grindletonians/Ranters: Robert Brerley, why was clergy established? People should take charge of their own religious beliefs, what are they to say what is sin and hell TOO RADICAL Charles II (r. 1661-1685): was in hiding in France after his father was executed, came back and tried to reform state with more limited monarchy after Cromwell’s death, 1672 Declaration of Indulgence allowed Catholics to worship in home Glorious Revolution (1688): William and Mary ruled, 1689 Act of Toleration to most Christian religions, monarchs needed money and turned to Parliament for support after seeing what happened with Charles I
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This note was uploaded on 04/22/2008 for the course HIST 101.103 taught by Professor Kagan during the Spring '06 term at Johns Hopkins.

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Final Review - Charles I (1625-1649): Dismissed Parliament,...

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