History 201 - Midterm Study Guide

History 201 - Midterm Study Guide - History Midterm Study...

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Diocletian – To end the period of Roman crisis in the 3 rd century he starts the “Dominate” in 284. Changes Rome into a blatant autocratic state. Makes currency reforms, reorganizes the army (frontier garrisons and mobile field armies.) Ties peasants to the land, artisans must supply military. Persecutes Christians and forms the Tetrarchy Tetrarchy – A system of division by Diocletian who split the Empire into 4 parts controlled by two co-emperors (Augusti) and 2 junior-emperors (Caesari). This was ideally practical but in reality divided the Empire into two halves. Rome was left as only one of several capital cities. However, this policy did help the foundation and continued existence of the eastern empire that did not fall victim to the fate of the western half. Constantine – Defeats his co-emperor to become emperor in 323. He continues the reforms of Diocletian and founds Constantinople. Has battle vision – converts to Christianity. Issues Edict of Milan advocating religious tolerance in 313. Eusebius – The biographer of Constantine who recorded the fact that Constantine had supposedly seen a vision of the cross in the sky before the Battle of the Milvian Bridge. This helped legitimize Constantine’s conversion to Christianity. Battle of the Milvian Bridge – The battle between co-emperors Maxentius and Constantine. Constantine’s victory started him on the path of ending the tetrarchy and becoming sole ruler of the Roman Empire. It was also the victory that prompted Constantine to convert to Christianity and begin the Roman Christian coversion. Martyrdom – Many early saints died as martyrs for Christianity. This showed ordinary people the strength of the new religion and helped its popularity. Saint Perpetua is a good example of an early Martyr who was sacrificed in the Arena at Carthage for her Christian faith. Her memoir “Passion” is one of the texts that helped spread early Christianity. Augustus – Defeats Marc Antony at Actium to become Princeps. Disguises his monarchy as a republic. He emphasizes a new era of peace through victory. Places great importance on the family as a basic unit of Roman society. Demonstrates his pietas through construction of buildings to honor the Gods. Positions himself as father of the people and attempts to improve the lives of ordinary Romans. Maintains his power through control of the army and the treasury. Makes familial reforms (adultery laws, encourages more children.) Becomes very adept at the use of propaganda and patronizes the arts. Reinforces his message on coinage and buildings. “Barbarians” – A generic term to encompass many different non Roman European peoples. “Barbarians” include the Vandals, Visigoths, Ostrogoths, Huns, and Franks who all became important successors to Roman power in the 5 th and 6 th centuries. Saints
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History 201 - Midterm Study Guide - History Midterm Study...

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