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History Study Guide

History Study Guide - History 201 Emory University Final...

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December 11, 2007 History 201 – Emory University Final Study Guide Cluny – a Benedictine monastery that became important in church reform of the 10 th century. The pope was named protector the monastery and it became popular because of how it was symbolically the property of St. Peter and because of the elaborate chants that the monks did. Many other powerful men and women called on Cluniac monks to reform their own monastery on the Cluny model. Cluniac abbots believed in celibacy for priests, lay reform (a cease of oppression of the poor.) The Cluniacs began to link their program of internal monastic reform to the papacy and helped start papal reform. Investiture Controversy – in the 11 th century, pope Benedict IX was seen as a poor spiritual leader. In 1046, two other men claim to be pope resulting in a schism. HRE Henry III invades Italy that year and deposes all three Popes. He appoints a German Pope of his own choosing, Leo IX, to reform the Church and end corruption. The end result of this is that in 1059, Gregory VII supports a papal election decree which forces papal election from lay control – Popes are now elected by Cardinals. Gregory VII – a powerful Pope elected in 1073, he makes several reform attempts including decrees that priests remain celibate and unmarried and lay lords have no control over Papal elections. During Emperor Henry IV’s minority, the Pope attempts to win control over all clerical appointments (part of the investiture struggle.) Gregory advocates the Two Swords Theory between religious and secular power with the Pope supreme. This states that 1. God gave temporal and spiritual power to the Pope. 2. Pope can delegate his spiritual power to secular leaders (but it is still his to give and take.) This results in the investiture struggle. Crusades – in 1096, Pope Urban II preaches the First Crusade at Clermont. The context of this call was that the balance of power in Byzantium had been disrupted by the Turks. Overwhelmed emperor Alexis Comnenus appeals to other Christians for help citing harassment of pilgrims to the Holy Land. For the People’s Crusade (1096) average men
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become crusaders led by peter the Hermit. However, it fails. The First Crusade is led predominantly by French Nobles. In 1099, Franks capture Jerusalem, massacre it’s inhabitants and set up 4 states of Edessa, Antioch, Tripoli and Jerusalem. In 1187, Saladin destroys the kingdom of Jerusalem by defeating the Franks at Hatin. Later crusades include the Second (a spectacular failure) the Third (the crusade from Robin Hood) and the Fourth (called by Innocent III it involves sacking Constantinople for relics) Emperor Henry IV – is Holy Roman Emperor during the papacy of Pope Gregory VII. The Investiture Struggle takes place between the two. In 1075, Gregory suspends German bishops appointed by Henry. Henry argues that he is a consecrated king, derives his power from God and was chosen to lead his kingdom. Gregory denies the power of kingship
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History Study Guide - History 201 Emory University Final...

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