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Explain the safety issues of runway incursions and some of the challenges associated with reducing incursions on the airport surface environment.A Runway Incursion is defined as any event at an airport involving the incorrect presence of an aircraft vehicle or person on the protected area of a surface designated for the landing and takeoffof aircraft. Type of Runway incursion are as follows: Departing aircraft runway entry conflicting to ATC clearance, Aircraft runway crossing after landing conflicting to ATC clearance, Issued ATC taxi clearance is different than ATC clearance, ATC runway clearance misjudged, Towing vehicle runway crossing contrary to ATC clearance etc. Passenger safety is a risk if this type of scenario happens and both the aircraft fails to divert from the incident. Challenges for reducing runway incursions are as follows:Proper communication technique during taxi, use of technology to visually show the path of the taxi route. Knowledge of airport surface markings, lights and signs and taxiway.Preparation of expected taxi out/in routing, and adequate taxi technique andOperation. One of the challenges is old airport infrastructure, also old radar system which are notthat accurate while using a GPS will give ATC a better real time location of the aircraft for this challenge a Multi-static Dependent Surveillance system was invented which is extremely powerful as it uses a combination of GPS technique and another technique better known as multi lateration. Another system was invented for a challenge where pilots has to depend on traffic