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socio_quiz1 - Founders of Sociology sociology social...

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Founders of Sociology: - sociology : social science, study of human society and social behavior, how and why people as members of a group act the way they do towards each other Dyad- group of two, smallest group sociologists study Triad- group of three - August Comte (1798): founding father of sociology, believed in a hierarchy of science, knowledge got progressively more difficult as you go up the hierarchy, simplest: astronomy (in his eyes) followed by physics, chemistry, biology, sociology. Somewhat difficult to study humans when they know they are being studied, because they sometimes change their behavior - Durkheim : problems of social order, argued that societies are held together by their shared beliefs and values; society is what motivates behavior - Karl Marx : process of competition and change, struggle and tension in society when change is trying to be made- sometimes violent, but not always - Weber : conflict theorist, viewed social world from standpoint of individual, wanted to know how people understand and interpret the world around them - Harriet Martineau : 1 st female sociologist, born in 1802, wrote many books, 1 st to translate Comte’s work into English, traveled around America - W.E.B DuBois : black sociologist, born 1860, founder of Atlanta school of sociology, experience of race and ethnicity, cofounder of NAACP, he left the country because racism was so bad Doing Sociology: 1. Wonder: what interests you 2. Conceptualization: narrow down your wonder; define problem 3. Theorize: Why and how are concepts related Research methods: - survey: you don’t know who fills out survey and honesty can arise as an issue - participant observation: participating in proceeding but with a critical eye - secondary analysis: analyzing data that someone else has gathered documents: gather information from books, etc. - unobtrusive measures: observing people without their knowledge or consent - experiments: measured before and after to see changes, if any Theories: Functionalist Theory: how does it work in society, what keeps order and stability in society; manifest: intended function; latent: unintended consequence; how does a part contribute to overall stability of society, defends existing social arrangement Conflict Theory: conflict over scarce and valued resources, dominant and subordinate groups; who benefits from arrangement as it exists; exaggerates tension and divisions of society Symbolic Interactionist: shared meanings, how are symbolic meanings generated, no systematic framework for predicting symbolic meaning
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Society and Culture: Society: relatively self-sufficient and self-sustaining group of people who are united by social relationships and who live in a particular territory Culture: complex pattern of living that humans have developed and have passed from one generation to the next - there is no society without culture, and no culture without society Material culture : those things humans create that you can physically touch Nonmaterial culture : those things that humans create that you cannot physically
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