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Chapter 14 - The Brain and Cranial NervesMonday, July 11, 20161:51 PMObjectivesAfter completing this chapter, you should be able to1identify the principal parts of the brain, and describe how the brain is protected.2explain the formation, circulation, and functions of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF).3compare the structure and functions of the brain stem, cerebellum and diencephalon(including the thalamus and hypothalamus).4describe the cortex, gyri, fissures and sulci of the cerebrum.5name and describe the locations of the lobes of the cerebrum.6describe the functions of the basal ganglia and the limbic system.7describe the locations and functions of the sensory, association and motor areas of thecerebral cortex.8explain the significance of hemispheric lateralization.9define brain waves and explain their significance.10define the termcranial nerve, and identify the twelve pairs of cranial nerves by name,number, and functions.11describe briefly the few main brain disorders.Keywords and TopicsMake certain that you can define, and use in context, each of the terms listed below, andthat you understand the significance of each of the concepts.1Identify the principal parts of the brain, and describe how the brain is protected.oneural tube- the brain and spinal cord develop from the ectodermal neuraltubeoprimary brain vesicles- the prosencephalon, mesencephalon, andrhomenchephalon.Both the prosencephalon and rhombencephalon subdividefurther, formingsecondary brain vesicles.The prosencephalon gives rise tothe telecephalon and diencephalon, and the rhombencephalon or hindbrain,develops into the metencephalon and myelencephalon.These brain vessicles eventually become…Telencephalon- cerebrum and lateral ventriclesDiencephalon - thalamus, hypothalamus, epithalamus, andthird ventricleMesencephalon - midbrainMetencephalon - pons, cerebellum, and upper part of thefourth ventricleMyelencephalon - medulla oblongata and lower part of thefourth ventricleoprincipal parts of the brainbrain stemcerebellumdiencephalonCerebrum1
oprotective coverings1.cranial meninges (singular is meninx)2.dura mater3.arachnoid mater4.pia mater2
oblood brain barrier (BBB)Consists mainly of tight junctions that seal together the endothelial cells ofbrain blood capillaries and a thick basement membrane that surround thecapillaries. Astrocytes press up against the capillaries and secretechemicals that maintain the permeability characterists of the tightjunctions.Only some water-soluble substances , such as glucose, cross theBBB by active transport.Other substances, such as creatinine, urea, andmost ions, cross the BBB very slowly. Still others, like proteins andantibiotics, do not pass at all.Oxygen, carbon dioxide and alcohol do cross3