Exam 2 Review - Ch 7 Attitudes An attitude is composed of 3...

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Ch. 7 - Attitudes: An attitude is composed of 3 parts: - Evaluation - Positive, Negative, Neutral - Behavior - Attitudes, Direct Behavior - Cognition - Thoughts, Ideas, Preferences Attitudes are formed through - Automatic vs. Controlled Processes - Exposure Learning Classical Conditioning Operant Conditioning Observational Learning Biological? → “Mere Exposure” (“Repeated exposure”) The more do do something the more you will like it Active because you engage in the attitude behavior La Pierre Study: (Prejudice Test) - Chinese Americans stayed at certain hotels and went to various restau- rants and received good treatment and about a year later they called many hotels and see if they would let them stay at the hotels (etc.) but they were turned down based on race Cognitive Dissonance Theory - People’s behaviors conflict with their actions Cognitive Dissonance Festinger and Carlsmith Study: - Peg Turning - Convinced to reiterate directions to other people with the consideration that they will be paid either $1 or $20 Forbidden Fruit/Insufficent Punishment Study: - “Forbidden Toy Study” - Children are given a slew of toys and are supposed to rate them. Next, they are told that they can play with any toy but one - ALL children disliked the fact that they couldn’t play with the forbidden toy - After children were to rate the toys again
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- The children given a mild threat reacted to the toy less desirable than before but children given a severe threat found the toy more desirable be- cause of the level of the punishment * Mild Threats of punishment → weak * The child realizes the toy isn’t “that great after all” * Severe threats make people resist behavior and may lead to someone wanting the toy even more Post Decision Dissonance = “OH I didn’t want that anyway Self Perception Theory: - Contrasts Cognitive Dissonance Theory - Argues that an unpleasant mental state is not needed as explanation for the results for the results of the cognitive dissonance studies - Also, it suggests that people didn’t change their attitudes to fit their behavior because inconsistencies are mentally unpleasant - While cognitive dissonance theory argues that people change attitudes to fit their behavior because inconsistencies are mentally unpleasant HOT PROCESS/COLD PROCESS Ch. 8 - Persuasion Elaboration Likelihood Model includes 2 routes: - Peripheral Route Processing - exterior influences - Central Route Processing - elaborating thought process through your mind Peripheral Route Processing: - “Peripheral cues” cause attitude change - Influences: Rate of Speech, # of messages arguments - Emotional Appeals (FEAR, etc.) - “Attitudes are changed via Superficial means” - Ex. Commercials - What is it even about? Does the message agree with the original intent?
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