HIS 101 4-11-16 HW - Reconstructionthe effort to restore...

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Reconstruction —the effort to restore southern states to the Union and to redefine African Americans’ place in American society—began before the Civil War ended. Stopped at Section VI. Read AmericanYawp chapter 15 1. What were the Black Codes and how did they effect the lives of Black? The Black Codes were laws to help regulate black behavior and impose social and economic control. These laws granted African Americans the right to own property, marry or make contracts, but they also denied fundamental rights . White lawmakers forbade black men from serving on juries or in state militias, refused to recognize black testimony against white people, apprenticed orphan children to their former masters, and established severe vagrancy laws. Mississippi’s vagrant law- freedmen had to carry papers proving they were employed, if no proof=arrested and fined, if couldn’t pay=sheriff had the right to hire out his prisoner to anyone willing to pay the tax. Black Codes criminalized black leisure, limited their mobility, and locked many into farming contracts. 2. What did the numerous Congressional Reconstruction Acts do to help the lives of Blacks? (this is going to be a fairly long answer. You might make a list. But you must briefly explain what each thing on the list did) Civil Rights Act of 1866-constitutionally define all American-born residents (except Native peoples) as citizens and which prohibited any curtailment of citizens “fundamental rights ”. Fourteenth Amendment June 13, 1866- Section One granted citizenship and repealed the Dred Scott (1857) decision. Ensured that slave laws could not deny due process or discriminate against particular groups of people. It signaled the federal gov.’s willingness to enforce the Bill of Rights over the authority of the states. 1867, first of the Two Reconstruction Act s : o Dissolved state governments and divided the South into five military districts. o Before states could rejoin the Union, they would have to: ratify the Fourteenth Amendment, write new constitutions enfranchising African Americans abolish black codes Reconstruction brought the first moment of mass participation of African Americans. After 1867, when Congress ordered Southern states to eliminate racial discrimination in voting, African Americans began to win elections across the South. Southern transformed from Democratic to Republican-led states with African Americans in position of power for the first time in American history. Through the provisions of the Congressional Reconstruction Acts, black men voted and served as delegates to the state constitutional conventions in 1868. Black delegates actively participated in revising state constitutions. An accomplishment of conventions-establishment of public school
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system. By the end of the Reconstruction, every Southern state had a public school system.
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