WHAP Chapter 8 Outline - Morett Xavier P.5 WHAP Chapter 8...

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Morett, Xavier P.5 WHAP October 12, 2013 Chapter 8 Outline- African Civilizations and the Spread of Islam I. The kingdoms, societies, and states of Africa during and before the spread of Islam have always been connected to the Mediterranean and the Classical world through methods such as trade. They existed under multiple political forms, languages, and religions. The arrival of Islam began to form unified states and alter African cultures, but the impacts of the Bantu people, Christianity, and other pre-Islamic influences remained and sometimes mixed with the new religion. II. Civilizations/Countries a) Africa as a Whole (Africa) i. 100-200 CE: Camels introduced for trade in Sahara ii. 640-700 CE: Islam spreads across North Africa iii. 670 CE: Muslims rule Tunisia or Ifriqiya iv. 1100 Almoravid Movement; 1130 Amohadis movement v. 1324 Pilgrimage of Mansa Musa to Mecca b) Christian Kingdoms: Nubia/Ethiopia (East Africa) i. 1260 Lalibela rules in Ethiopia; 1400 Ethiopian Christian Kingdom rises ii. 1542 Portuguese expeditions defend Ethiopia from Islamic invasions c) Kingdom of Ghana and Benin (West Africa?) i. 300 CE: Origins of the Kingdom of Ghana ii. 1000 Ghana at height of its power d) Sudanic States: Mali and Songhay (West Africa) i. 1010 Capital established at Gao on Niger River; leaders become Muslim ii. 1200 Rise of the empire of Mali; 1260 Death of Sundiata iii. 1300 Mali at its height ; Kanem empire rivals iv.
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