T - 2014 NDI 6WS Fitzmier Lundberg Abelkop Topicality...

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2014 NDI 6WS – Fitzmier, Lundberg, Abelkop
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Topicality Negative Core brought to you by Luke Newell & Isabel Slavinsky
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-OCEANS-
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-Excludes Seafloor
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1NC Interpretation – the oceans are distinct from the seabed floor that lies beneath them MarBEF 13 (Marine Biodiversity and Ecosystem Functioning, funded by the European Union, “open oceans,” , accessed 7/7/14) The open oceans or pelagic ecosystems are the areas away from the coastal boundaries and above the seabed. It encompasses the entire water column of the seas and the oceans and lies beyond the edge of the continental shelf. It extends from the tropics to the polar regions and from the sea surface to the abyssal depths. It is a highly heterogeneous and dynamic habitat. Physical processes control the biological activities and lead to substantial geographic variability in production. Violation – the Aff increases exploration and/or development in the seabed – not the ocean – they are ecologically and legally distinct Berkman 11 (July 2011, Paul Berkman is head of the Arctic Ocean Geopolitics Programme at the Scott Polar Research Institute, University of Cambridge, and research professor at Bren School of Environmental Science & Management, “Race for the Arctic: Let the North Pole be a pole of peace,” - briefing.org/2011/07/let-the-north-pole-be-a-pole-of-peace/ , accessed 7/3/14) In considering ways to shore up peace in the Arctic Ocean, it is useful to draw a clear distinction between the sea floor (Figure 2a) and the overlying water column (Figure 2b). Ecologically and legally distinct, the sea floor and overlying water column reveal alternative jurisdictional configurations for Arctic and non-Arctic nations alike to share in strategies that can both promote cooperation and prevent conflict in the Arctic Ocean. Standards – 1 – Limits – the topic is already massive – they allow the Aff to do anything in the entire mass of ocean water and do anything to “explore or develop” the seabed – because exploration and development mean nothing, a strict interpretation of “oceans” is the only way to limit a realistically unmanageable topic. 2 – Topic Education – they shift the focus of debates to seabed development instead of genuine ocean development, which kills predictable clash and core topic learning. 3 – Extra Topicality – it’s not okay for the Aff to develop both the ocean and the seabed. If we win that seabed exploration/development is distinct then it’s not within the scope of Aff topical fiat. Topicality is a voting issue – competitive equity and jurisdiction
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2NC O/V Our interpretation is that the ocean is distinct from the seabed – it includes the water column but not the sea floor – that’s our 1NC MarBEF evidence The Affirmative develops the sea bed – our 1NC Berkman evidence proves that it’s an entirely distinct jurisdiction both ecologically and legally.
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