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Speciesism - Novice Print - Stuyvesant Speciesism K 1...

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Stuyvesant Speciesism K 2014-2015 1
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Stuyvesant Speciesism K 2014-2015 1NC Oceanic policies are rooted in anthropocentric speciesism. Our desire to explore or develop the oceans is a Western and human-centered ideal that values humans over all other beings. Messier and Batra 7 (Vartan, PhD in Comparative Literature at the University of California at Riverside and Nandita, Department of English at the University of Puerto Rico Mayagüez, “This Watery World”//dg) Juxtaposed against the sea’s vast cultural void, the advent of seafaring produced not only new territories but an entire culture , claimed Michel Foucault, one exemplified by “heterotopia,” which “juxtapos[e] in a single real place several spaces, several sites that are themselves incompatible .” Heterotopias are not utopias but “real emplacements” that “simultaneously represent, contest and reverse...all the other real emplacements in their environment,” and for him “the ship is the heterotopia par excellence ” (178-81). Meanwhile, W.H Auden suggests that domination of the sea marks not merely the beginning of biological life but the beginning of civilization, observing that “the sea, in fact, is that state of barbaric vagueness and disorder out of which civilization emerged ” (6). Domination of the sea thus encapsulates the ordering of nature by humans and , as Philip de Souza points out , was “crucial to both the best and the worst aspects of civilisation (cover blurb). Although the first boats were probably created for rivers and lakes rather than for the sea (de Souza 7), seafaring has produced the world as we now know it through the “discovery and exploitation of new territories, new peoples and new ideas,” which led the way to the expansion of the world’s history , its cultures and religions, and to economic globalization as we now have it . In addition, as Bernhard Klein has shown, it is the early modern era that produced “permanent maritime links and trade routes across vast oceanic spaces” in contrast to earlier “great seafaring empires” (such as the Roman, Carthaginian, Viking and Ming), which lacked the “technical means” to effect a permanent expansion of their borders on other shores. In contrast, the history-making voyages of Vasco da Gama, Magellan and Columbus, among others, paved the way for imperialism. Klein therefore places the imperial project of the sixteenth century as marking the “true beginning of globalisation” (Klein, “Historicizing”). Nevertheless while these fifteenth- and sixteenth-century oceanic voyages might have changed history, the most famous theoretic argument for the Free Sea was produced in the early years of the seventeenth century in Hugo Grotius’ 1604 Mare Liberum (or Freedom of the Sea), which argued (on behalf of the Dutch East India Company) for freedom of not only the oceans and coastal waters but of seafaring, trade and fishing on the grounds that the law of the land (private property) could not be applied to the boundless sea. Initially, it was
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