Civil Engineering - 1 Running Head IRRIGATION Irrigation...

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1 Running Head: IRRIGATION Irrigation: Its Importance and Application in Agriculture Name Institution Course Date
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2 Running Head: IRRIGATION Introduction The demand for goods and services has been on the increase for the past few years. we are in an era where almost every commodity’s demand exceeds its supply, thanks to the world’s ever- growing population. To supply the market with enough products, producers and suppliers are coming up with creative ways of ensuring there is a continuous and reliable supply of goods in the market. The aim of this paper is to shed some light on the importance of irrigation in the production of food. Various aspects of irrigation have been explained, including the use of pumps to supply water in farm. Irrigation makes agriculture possible in areas previously unsuitable for crop production and animal rearing. In simple terms, it is the artificial application of water to crops via manmade systems to supply water demands that are not satisfied by rainfall. It is of special importance to the Arabian countries which are in some of the world’s driest zones. Irrigation has been used to turn deserts into agricultural fields in these countries which receive below 5 inches of rain in a year [Jas10]. Depending on the cost and type of activity, there are various types of irrigation applied for agricultural activities. The most common and less costly method of irrigation is the use of gravity to convey water. This method is efficient for the provision of water to small sized farms. Irrigation systems are classified into two broad categories: low flow and high flow. Low flow irrigation systems operate under low water pressures, resulting in low volumes of water at the destination. Drip emitters, micro spray and drip lines. High flow systems on the other hand employs pumps to achieve the high pressure requirements. It includes the use of rotors, bubblers and fixed sprayers. It is important to select and design an irrigation method wisely to avoid overspray, runoff and low head drainage [Jas10]. Why we need irrigation
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3 Running Head: IRRIGATION The need to irrigate is driven by the need to meet the fundamental water requirements for crops in countries which receive too little rainfall during the growth season to support economical production of food. It’s almost impossible for people living in areas with reliable rainfall to appreciate the importance of irrigation. Arid and semi-arid areas on the other hand know only too well how irrigation is important for their survival. Irrigation acts as insurance and provides a powerful management tool against the vagaries of rainfall [Eva10]. Every choice in the society today is accompanied by underlying economic benefits. Before the implementation of any project, cost analysis is carried out to determine the economic viability of the project after it has been completed. Arid and semiarid countries have invested heavily in surface irrigation schemes accompanied by the construction of dams, canals and groundwater extractions.
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