MATH30-6-Lecture-1 - Introduction to Statistics and Data...

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MATH30-6 Probability and Statistics Introduction to Statistics and Data Analysis / Preliminary Concepts on Probability
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Objectives At the end of the lesson, the students are expected to Define basic terms and phrases used in statistics; Identify the importance of statistics in everyday life; Compare and contrast descriptive and inferential statistics; Understand and describe sample spaces and events for random experiments with graphs, tables, lists, or tree diagrams; Use permutation and combinations to count the number of outcomes in both an event and the sample space;
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Objectives Define probability; and Relate counting techniques to real life situations.
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Statistics The field of statistics deals with the collection, presentation, analysis, and use of data to make decisions, solve problems, and design products and processes. In simple terms, statistics is the science of data .
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Branches of Statistics Descriptive Statistics (DS) Concerned with describing the characteristics and properties of a group of persons, places or things. Based on easily verifiable facts or meaningful information. Does not draw inferences or conclusions about a larger set of data.
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Descriptive Statistics Examples How many passed in the recent Electrical Engineering Licensure examination? In Applied Life Data Analysis (Wiley, 1982), Wayne Nelson presents the breakdown time of an insulating fluid between electrodes at 34 kV. The times in minutes, are as follows: 0.19, 0.78, 0.96, 1.31, 2.78, 3.16, 4.15, 4.67, 4.85, 6.50, 7.35, 8.01, 8.27, 12.06, 31.75, 35.52, 33.91, 36.71, and 72.89.
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Branches of Statistics Inferential Statistics (IS) Draws inferences about a population based on the data gathered from the samples using the techniques of DS. Composed of those methods concerned with the analysis of a smaller group of data leading to predictions or inferences about the larger set of data. Statistics that deals in giving a generalization about the whole from an analysis of the part of the group.
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Inferential Statistics Examples Is there a significant correlation between the amount spent in studying and final grade in a computer programming course? Study shows that ABET accredited programs draw more students to enrol at Mapúa Institute of Technology in such programs.
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Population and Sample Population Totality of all observations from which the dataset is acquired All of the possible events should be considered. Variable that describes population is known as parameter. Example: There are 5,786 students enrolled in MATH10-1. Population: Students of MATH10-1 Parameter: 5,786 (population size)
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Population and Sample Sample Small group taken from the population A group heterogeneous as possible taken from the large group to represent the population Variable that describes sample is known as statistic .
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