Lecture7_20160601ans - Polysemy and Semantic Change Usage...

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Polysemy and Semantic Change; Usage and Variation LIN203 – Lecture 7
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Summary Review Learning Outcomes Polysemy vs. homonymy Reasons for SemanAc Change Types of SemanAc Change Metaphor Metonym Outcomes of SemanAc Change Narrowing Widening Meaning ShiHs MelioraAon PejoraAon (Euphemism) VariaAons due to social factors Formal vs. informal contexts Specialized terms Origins of variaAons and change External vs. internal factors Dialectal variaAons Standard Language Speaking vs. WriAng Can we “control” linguisAc change?
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i>clicker question… 1. The following word change: sub- + port > support illustrate a phonological process referred to as: a. rhotacism b. inserAon c. assimilaAon d. deleAon
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i>clicker question… 2. According to the textbook, in LaAn vowel change, the vowel /a/ changes to /e/ when… (example: fact – defecAve – deficiency) a. the vowel is followed by a single consonant and a vowel b. the vowel the preceded by another syllable in the same word c. the vowel is followed by more than one consonant d. the vowel is followed by an /l/
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Learning Outcomes By the end of this lecture, you should be able to: 1. define the terms polysemy and homonymy and explain the difference between the two 2. describe the two (three) types of semanAc changes and illustrate each type by way of examples 3. discuss the different origins of language change and variaAons in terms of context, social situaAons, professions, geographical and poliAcal differences 4. give details about the implicaAons of language “standardizaAon” and describe social and linguisAc implicaAons of acempts to “control” linguisAc changes
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i>clicker question… 3. Learning about why and how words take on mulAple meanings will make my life easier. a. True b. False WHY do you think that is?
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Polysemy vs. Homonymy The same spelling or pronunciaAon has two or more different meanings Polysemy VariaAon in meaning Meanings are related Example: path “feeling”; “illness” Homonymy Meanings are not related, except by accident Example: ring > “circular band”; “to make a bell sound”
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Reasons for Semantic Change 1. Errors and MisinterpretaAon “bead” originally meant “prayer”, it now refers to “a small decoraAve object with a hole drilled for threading or stringing” 2. CreaAve VariaAon E.g. Extending physical acributes such as cool, slick and 6ght
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