Hindu philosophy - Hindu philosophy is divided into six...

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Hindu philosophy is divided into six Sanskrit āstika ("orthodox") schools of thought, or darshanas (literally, "views"), which accept the Vedas as supreme revealed scriptures, and three nāstika ("heterodox") schools, which do not accept the Vedas as supreme. The āstika schools are: 1. Sankhya , a strongly dualist theoretical exposition of mind and matter. 2. Yoga , a school emphasizing meditation closely based on Sankhya 3. Nyaya or logics 4. Vaisheshika , an empiricist school of atomism 5. Mimamsa , an anti-ascetic and anti-mysticist school of orthopraxy 6. Vedanta , opposing Vedic ritualism in favour of mysticism . Vedanta came to be the dominant current of Hinduism in the post-medieval period. The nāstika schools are: 1. Buddhism 2. Jainism 3. Cārvāka , a skeptical materialist school, which died out in the 15th century and whose primary texts have been lost. These nine philosophies form the nine gems of the Sanātana Dharma (HINDUISM). 1. Sankhya , a strongly dualist theoretical exposition of mind and matter. Samkhya or Sankhya is the oldest of the orthodox philosophical systems in Hinduism. Samkhya postulates that everything in reality stems from purusha (Sanskrit: पपप , self, atma or soul) and prakriti (matter, creative agency or energy). There are many living souls ( Jeevatmas ) and they possess consciousness. Prakriti consists of three dispositions known as qualities ( gunas ): activity ( rajas ), inactivity ( tamas ) and steadiness ( sattva ) which arises when the two other gunas are held in equilibrium. Because of the intertwined relationship between the soul and these dispositions, an imbalance in disposition causes the world to evolve. Liberation of the soul happens when it realizes that it is above and beyond these three dispositions. Samkhya is a dualistic philosophy, but there are differences between Samkhya and other forms of dualism. In the West, dualism is between the mind and the body, whereas in Samkhya it is between the soul and matter. [ clarification needed ] The concept of the atma (soul) is different from the concept of the mind. Soul is absolute reality that is all-pervasive, eternal, indivisible, attributeless, pure consiousness. It is non-matter and is beyond intellect. Originally, Samkhya was not theistic, but in confluence with Yoga it developed a theistic variant. 2. Yoga , a school emphasizing meditation closely based on Sankhya In Indian philosophy , Yoga is the name of one of the six orthodox philosophical schools. [1] [2] The Yoga philosophical system is closely allied with the Samkhya school. [3] The Yoga school as expounded by Patanjali accepts the Samkhya psychology and metaphysics, but is more theistic than the Samkhya, as evidenced by the addition of a divine entity to the Samkhya's twenty-five elements of reality. [4] [5] The parallels between Yoga and Samkhya were so close that Max Müller says that "the two philosophies were in popular parlance distinguished from each other as Samkhya with and Samkhya without a Lord .... " [6] The intimate relationship between Samkhya and Yoga is explained by Heinrich Zimmer : "These two are regarded in India as twins, the two aspects of a single discipline.
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  • Fall '08
  • staff
  • Jainism, Jain, Main article, Jains, Jain monks

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