network management

network management - CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION Learning...

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CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION Learning Objectives At the end of this chapter the learner shall be able to; i. Define various terms used in networking. ii. Explain the different network topologies that exist citing advantages and disadvantages of each. iii. Explain the OSI and TCP/IP network models. iv. Explain the various transmission media 1.0 Introduction Computer networks today drive commerce and industry. Billions of shillings are generated annually as a result of computer networks and related technologies. In this chapter we explore some of the basics of computers networks including key definitions, topologies, network models and transmission media. 1.1 Key Definitions Network - A group of computers connected together in a way that allows information to be exchanged between the computers. Node - Anything that is connected to the network. While a node is typically a computer, it can also be devices such as: Mainframes, minicomputers, supercomputers Workstations Printers, disk servers, robots X-terminals Gateways, switches, routers, bridges Cellular phone, Pager. Refrigerator, Television, Video Tape Recorder Segment - Any portion of a network that is separated, by a switch, bridge or router, from other parts of the network. Backbone - The main cabling of a network that all of the segments connect to. Typically, the backbone is capable of carrying more information than the individual segments. For example, each segment may have a transfer rate of 10 Mbps (megabits per second: 1 million bits a second), while the backbone may operate at 100 Mbps. Topology - The way that each node is physically connected to the network. 1.2 Network Topologies A network topology can be physical or logical. Physical Topology is the actual layout of a network and its connections. Logical Topology is the way in which data accesses the medium and transmits packets. There are several network topologies: 1.2.1 Physical Bus Topology Each node is daisy-chained (connected one right after the other) along the same backbone. Information sent from a node travels along the backbone until it reaches its destination node. Each end of a bus network must be terminated with a resistor to keep the packets from getting lost. Physical Bus Topology Advantages Inexpensive to install. Easy to add stations. Use less cable compared to other topologies. Works well for small networks.
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Disadvantages No longer recommended, due to frequent collisions of packets If backbone breaks, whole network down Limited no of devices can be attached Difficult to isolate problems. Sharing same cable slows response rates 1.2.2 Physical Ring Topology Similar to a bus network, rings have nodes daisy chained, but the end of the network in a ring topology comes back around to the first node, creating a complete circuit. Each node takes a turn sending and receiving information through the use of a token. The token along with any data is sent from the first node to the second node which extracts the data addressed to it and adds any data it wishes to send. Then second node passes the token and data to the third node, etc. until it comes back
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  • Spring '10
  • Woods
  • Networking, Setting Up Local Area Network, Star Network, Network topology

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