CHAPTER 1SYSTEM ANALYSIS, DESIGN AND PROJECTMANAGEMENTChapter ObjectivesAt the end of this chapter, you would have learnt:the importance of project management;the causes of project failure;how project management can reduce the failure rate;the importance of a project manager. 1.0 SYSTEM ANALYSIS AND DESIGN OVERVIEW1.0.1 Systems Development Life Cycle (SDLC)The term SDLC describes the stage a system moves through from conception untilits discarded or replaced. In the context information system projects, a distinctioncan be made between the project life cycle and the SDLC. As a project hasdefinite end, its unlikely that on going maintenance will be included in the scopeof a project but falls within our definition of the SDLC. There are seven stages in the SDLC namely:-Thesoftware development life cycle (SDLC)is the set of steps or activities inthe development of a software product. 1. Identification of a problem or opportunity2.Feasibility study3.System’s Investigation 4.System's Analysis5.System's Design6.System's Implementation7.System's review and maintenanceProblems Identification
Feasibility StudySystems InvestigationReview and MaintenanceSystems implementationSystems Design Systems Analysis
ICT PROJECT MANAGEMENTOverview of phases1.Preliminary study/ survey or problem identification/initiationThis stage involves determination of whether there is need to change the existingsystem or business procedures. It may require management requests for a changeof the existing system to give an organization a competitive advantage or to improve the staff morale. The user department should be involved during thedefinition of the problem. The problem to be solved should be very specific, clearand precise. It should not be too broad to cause ambiguities in its solution. Objectives of the preliminary study are:To understand organizational characteristics and its objectives To understand organizational structure To identify organizational mission and collect relevant data or documentregarding organizational information. To development a brief and accurate problems statement usually known assystem term of reference (TOR)Term of reference It is a documentation prepared by steering committee to act as a referencedocument throughout system development stages. Its contents include:Project titlePurpose of studyPersonelDepartments Sections affected or involved during the system implementation Available resources and constraints, the analyst, the project leader should consider The projects estimated duration and scheduleThe importance of terms of reference is:(i) Provides information about the proposed system(ii) It may act as a reference document throughout the systemdevelopment process (iii) It acts as an authorization document to the project system project, thus setting out systems limitation and capability(iv) It gives the scope and extent of the proposed system project, thussetting out systems limitation and capability.
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