Unformatted text preview: • Chapter 25: The Global Crisis 1921-1941 THE DIPLOMACY OF THE NEW ERA o Replacing the League: Nixed League of Nations + negotiated separate treaties with Central Powers • Would gain advantages but none of burdensome responsibilities • Build safeguards against future wars to not hamper US freedom + action in world Washington Conference of 1921: reductions in Navy + scrapping 2 million ships • Ultimately agreed to this; most of terms ratified 5-‐Power Pact 1922: limited navy 5 tons US:3 tons Japan:1.75 France/Italy Each • Also, 9-‐Power Pact: Open Door still in China; 4-‐Power Pact: protect Pacific Territories Kellogg-Briand Pact: multilateral treaty outlawing war as instrument of US policy • 14 Countries signed agreement, 48 joined later, but no enforcement o Debts + Diplomacy: Wanted to assure expansion of trade free of interference • US dependent on European economic health, was concerned • Allied forces struggled to repay $11 billion in loans to US o US reluctant to relieve debts or forgive them 1924: Charles Dawes provided loans to Germany via banks – Allies + reduce German payments • Dawes won Nobel Peace Prize, but did little to resolve problem • Money went around in little futile circle + US banks suffered Automobile industry opening European factories + captured overseas markets • Others took advantage of European industry + stagnated their industry to recover • Other people warned of European dependence of US economies Europeans unable to export goods to America – struggled to repay US loans – US ignored grievances Same with Latin America: maintained military presence in these countries • US investments doubled between 1924-‐1929 to weaken revolutionary forces in areas Also, access to Latin America’s wealth + influence/natural resources o Had difficult time trying to repay US w/ tariff barrier o Hoover + the World Crisis: Financial crisis created nationalism + threatened weak treaties • Bent on economic expansion in World – lead to beginning causes of WWII Took to withdrawing US troops from Haiti due to “goodwill” • Diplomatic recognition of countries no matter how sovereignty achieved in Latin US Political leaders plead to US to relieve/forgive debts; Hoover: “Fuck that and Pay Up” • Troubling to new regimes forming in Europe Mussolini Fascism in Italy increased its nationalism + military; threatening with Imperialism Nazis in Germany: Hitler rose nationalism and also his popularity • Believed in Aryan Race + anti-‐Semitic – threat to World Peace Major crisis in Asia: Japanese exerted superiority over China and threatening to USSR • Manchuria: 1931 Japan coup to claim China’s territory as their own • US hoped moderates in Tokyo controlled militarists; actually other way round Hoover’s reaction was to not intervene/impose economic sanctions/no diplomatic recognition/give no fucks ISOLATIONISM + INTERNATIONALISM o Depression Diplomacy: Pre-‐FDR: convert to gold standard to resolve war debts • US participated in World Economic Conference for resolution of issues • FDR already president + already switched to gold; rejected resolutions of currency stabilization FDR didn’t settle war debts via International agreements “For the last time, NO” Let issue die • Signed law to forbid loans to defaulted nations; months later, war-‐payments stopped Did want to improve world trade – lowered tariffs up to 50% in return for vice versa reduction • Increase in American exports by 40%; still lagged; other countries still couldn’t pay debts o America and the Soviet Union: Wanted to improve relations with USSR via foreign trade • • Still hadn’t recognized USSR by 1933; switched to recognition some time after • USSR also hoped US aid to control Japan because they feared their threat • No more anti-‐US propaganda + protect US citizens in return for recognition Relations soured as trade didn’t have foothold in Russia; US not interested in aid against Japan o The Good Neighbor Policy: Success in relations (diplomatic/economic) with Latin America • Target of trade reciprocity; West Hemisphere trade up by over 100% Inter-American Conference: no more imperialism over Latin America, sort of • Military influence gone, replaced by economic influence o The Rise of Isolationism: FDR admin marked any hopes for world peace via treaties + disarmament ended • Attempted for reduction in 1933, broke down, + Italy/Germany left talks; Japan ignored talks Sources of Isolationism: • Wilsonians became disillusioned • Fat Cats “tricked” US to go into WWI • Roosevelt sort of agreed to isolationism 1935: FDR asked senate to ratify treaty for US participate in World Court • Isolationists opposition defeated the treaty; didn’t attempt it again Isolationists grew as Italy prepared to invade Ethiopia + created Neutrality Act of 1935 • Further acts made in 1936 + 1937; arms embargo on victims and aggressors • 1937 Act: could only trade nonmilitary goods, pay cash + carry with own ships away from US Ethiopia: Italy finally attacked in 1935; Italy resigned from League of Nations, formed alliance with Germany • US renewed determination to stay out of it – 2/3 opposed action in US polls Spanish Civil War: US + UK agreed to stay out of it 1937: Japan attacked China’s 5 northern provinces • FDR felt Japanese aggression as threat to world peace • Should implement “Quarantine” on Japan by world community – public opinion hostile, bellied up Dec 12, 1937: Japan bombed US gunboat deliberately, but isolationists prevailed o The Failure of Munich • 1936: Hitler violated Versailles treaty + moved into French territory Rhineland • 1938: Moved into Austria + adopted it into Germany Virtually no opposition anywhere; Hitler now surrounding Czechoslovakia • Demanded the Sudetenland in Czech, be annexed into Germany (1938) Europe appalled, but didn’t want another war Munich Conference: France, UK, Germany, to resolve it; Hitler made false promise no more invasions • Appeasement came about + failed; 1939: Hitler occupied the rest of Czechoslovakia • A threatened Poland got assurance that UK and France would come to rescue A non-‐aggression act between Russia + Nazi Germany established in 1939 • Then, Hitler launched invasion into Poland FROM NEUTRALITY TO INTERVENTION o Neutrality Tested: US favored Allied nations, again; how much assistance was question 1939: FDR asked for revisions to Neutrality Act to arm allies/lift embargo • Isolationist opposition weakened FDR’s position; could sell arms via cash-‐+-‐carry After Poland conquered, USSR invaded Baltics; US did nothing substantial Fall of France: Hitler invaded Denmark, Norway, + France; Air Strikes, Blitzkrieg, defeated France quickly • Aided by Italy invading from South France – officially fell on June 22, 1940 • UK declared war on Axis Powers – though UK was weakened US upped arms to Allies; $1 billion for arming themselves for new military technology • Churchill requested military assistance, because UK couldn’t survive otherwise • Public considered UK requests futile effort; it was a goner (…cruel) • FDR went against tide + granted UK military arms Shifting Public Opinion: from Germany = weak to 60% thought Germany direct threat to US • Easily assisted Allies + composed first time peacetime draft Still big isolationist opposition; Will White liked arms assist but
not war • • Others wanted imminent declaration of war America First Committee: lobby which opposed war – debate between isolationists were bitter o The Third-Term Campaign: FDR contested for Dems’ nomination; others didn’t stand chance against him • Nominated, although Dems thought VP running mate too liberal FDR was on fence between Isolation + Intervention; Republican nominee = Wendell Willkie • Differed little from FDR – Willkie vigorous campaign + liked by public • Still, FDR won 55% of Popular Vote and overwhelming 449 electoral votes o Neutrality Abandoned: FDR increased arms assistance + moved US closer to entering war Lend-Lease: sold + US allowed to lend/lease arms to UK; if UK promised to pay later • Isolationists not happy; “FDR excuse for closing in on war” Transport of weapons upped by danger across Atlantic; UK losing more ships than could replace • US patrolled Atlantic with convoy vessels in July, 1941 Germany Invades the USSR: self-‐explanatory; drove nut-‐deep into Russia • US to expand lend-‐lease to USSR; created Soviet-‐
American Alliance Thus, Germany attacked US ships – US then decided to attack German ships “On Sight” Atlantic Charter: FDR + Churchill met in Newfoundland + agreed to squash Nazi tyranny • Only time stood between America and declaration of War o The Road to Pearl Harbor: Tripartite Pact: loose alliance between Japan and Germany/Italy • Japan wanted whole empire in Pacific; FDR showed his animosity Japan moved into Indochina, Vietnam-‐ a French Colony • FDR reacted by freezing assets + trade embargo; Popular Opinion rose Either repair US relations, or invade to receive crucial resources; Japan continued to invade colonies Nov 29th: US knows Japan attack on US would happen, the question was, Where? • Mass confusion + worry Dec 7, 1941: Japanese attacked Pearl Harbor – disastrous for US • Dec 11, declared war on Axis Powers ...
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