FHSC1014_L9_201605 (1)

FHSC1014_L9_201605 (1) - Lecture 9 Lecture 9 UNIVERSAL...

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Lecture 9 1 Lecture 9 UNIVERSAL GRAVITATION

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OUTLINES 2 1. Newton’s Law of Universal Gravitation 2. The Gravitational Field and the Relation between g and G 3. Gravitational Potential Energy for the Earth 4. Satellite in Circular Orbit 5. Total Energy of The Satellite 6. Escape Speed from Earth
Newton’s Law of Universal Gravitation If two particles with masses m 1 and m 2 are separated by a distance r , then a gravitational force acts along a line joining them, with magnitude given by G is the constant of universal gravitational G = 6.673 x 10 -11 N m² /kg² 3

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Universal Gravitation The force that mass 1 exerts on mass 2 is equal and opposite to the force mass 2 exerts on mass 1. The forces form a Newton’s third law of action-reaction pair. 4
Gravitational Force between Earth and Moon 5

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Example 1 Calculate the gravitational force between a 5.2 kg particle and 2.4 kg particle separated at a distance of 20 m . [Ans: 2.1×10 -12 N] 6
Definition of Weight The weight of an object on or above the earth is the gravitational force that the earth exerts on the object. The weight always acts downwards, toward the centre of the earth. On or above another astronomical body, the weight is the gravitational force exerted on the object by that body. SI Unit of Weight: newton (N) 7

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The Gravitational Field and the Relation Between g and G But So 8 2 r m M G W E mg W 2 r M G g E
h 9 h R r E 2 r M G g E 2 Earth the of surface On the E E R M G g

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Gravity On The Earth’s Surface: 10 2 2 6 24 2 2 11 2 s m 80 . 9 m 10 6.38 kg 10 98 . 5 kg m N 10 67 . 6 E E R M G g
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