11 - Thermodynamics

11 - Thermodynamics - Thermodynamics Beyond Simply Energy 2...

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Click to edit Master subtitle style Thermodynamics Beyond Simply Energy
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2 H2 + O2 --> 2 H2O Given a chemical reaction: 1. Does it happen? 2. How fast does it happen? 3. Is it an equilibrium reaction? 4. How does it compare with a competing  reaction?  (If I mix H2, O2 and N2, what  do I get?)
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Joe’s Rule of the Possible If it can happen, it will happen. But, that doesn’t tell you how much, how  fast, how often, how easily… …Thermodynamics picks up where Joe’s  Rule leaves off.
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Thermodynamics Thermodynamics deals with energy, as the  name implies, but not just energy. It  includes the study of all the different  possible states of a system and how the  system moves between different states.
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States I mix 1 molecule of O2 and 1 molecule of  H2 in an evacuated 1 L flask.  How many  different states of this system are there? A nearly infinite number of them!
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“States” of a system H 2 H 2 O 2 O 2
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“States” of a system H 2 O 2 H 2 O 2
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Thermodynamics deals with statistical  analysis of ensembles of states. In our case, we are usually looking at a  single representative state of the system  that is the “most probable” state.
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Putting the “thermo” in thermodynamics As the name implies, “thermo-dynamics” is  about energy (thermo=heat). What does this mean for a reaction?
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Reaction Energies The energy change associated with a  chemical reaction is called the  enthalpy of  reaction  and abbreviated ΔH. ΔH = Hfinal - Hinitial
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Enthalpy of Reactions There are actually a number of different  types of enthalpies because enthalpy  depends on conditions.  THEY ARE ALL  JUST SPECIFIC TYPES OF A GENERAL  CONCEPT CALLED “ENTHALPY”. ΔH = Hfinal - Hinitial
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General Reaction Scheme – “hot pack” Reaction Coordinate Ener gy Reactant s Product s E a Δ H
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Endothermic Reaction – “cold pack” Reaction Coordinate Energy Reactant s Products E a ΔH
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Where does the Energy go? In the case of a chemical reaction, you 
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11 - Thermodynamics - Thermodynamics Beyond Simply Energy 2...

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