LateIndustrializers0

LateIndustrializers0 - Latecomers and No-Shows For those...

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Latecomers and No-Shows For those who started after 1850 Process has different circumstances - different patterns Little to no coal within the borders of these countries (except Russia which develops it much later) Grater consumption of coal towards the end of 19th c a result of industrialization - not a cause The Swiss Earliest of the “latecomers” - high literacy rate before 1850, lots of home manufacturing 1850s over 57% of labor still primarily in Agriculture, less than 4% in factories 1850 finally gained customs union Population: 2 mil in 1800s, 4 mil by 1914 Early 20th century one of the highest living standards in Europe as a whole, late 20th century one of the highest in the World Swiss secrets to success Very high literacy = human capital Combined advanced technology (and labor saving devices) with good human capital Produced high quality, high priced, high value-added products Swiss clocks and watches, fancy textiles, specialized machinery, cheese and chocolate Development of chemical and pharmaceutical industries (specialized dyes, medicines) Rail - French investment, Swiss takeover By the 1960s - machines and metallurgy 40% of export earning, chemicals and pharmaceuticals 20%, clocks and watches 15%, textiles 12%, food and beverages 5% Later financial developments, service industries
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LateIndustrializers0 - Latecomers and No-Shows For those...

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