chap 7 notes

chap 7 notes - Ch 7 reading summary Discourse Comprehension...

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Ch 7 reading summary: Discourse Comprehension and Memory Comprehension Discourse Local and Global Discourse Structure -comprehension of connected discourse depends more on the arrangement of sentences than their meanings -stories are easier to understand if the sentences are connected in conventional ways -pronouns like “it” can be used only if the sentences are related to each other -“the” replaces “a” once an object has been mentioned in a story -other stories are easy to understand because we know certain things about the subject matter (for example we know the usual components of a birthday party so if a passage mentions a cake, the card, and the party, it makes sense to us) -2 levels of discourse structure -1. local structure - (aka microstructure ) the relationship between individual sentences in the discourse -2. global structure -(aka macrostructure ) our knowledge of the structure corresponding to the world as we know it which enables us to comprehend and remember shorter passages about relevant events -both levels of structure contribute to the coherence of a text- the degree to which different parts of a text are connected to one another Cohesion -discourse is coherent if there are semantic relations between successive sentences - cohesion - the range of possibilities that exist for linking something with what has gone before Categories of Cohesion - reference -links between words or phrases and other words or phrases in discourse, semantic relation where info needed to interpret one item is found somewhere else in the text (ex. using she, he, it, etc to refer to earlier items, demonstratives like the, this, that or comparatives like same, different, similar) - substitution -replace 1 lexical item with another as an alternative to repeating the first (ex. My computer sucks. I need a new one ) - ellipsis -substitute one phrase with nothing (ex. I wish I had more talent. My sister has more than I do) - conjunctive cohesion -express relation between phrases by using conjunctions (and, or, but, yet, so) - lexical cohesion - tie sentences with lexical relationships between words, using reiteration (repeat same word), synonymy (refer to word using synonym boy-lad), or hyponymy (refer to word using a hyponym- boy-child) Anamorphic and Cataphoric Reference- - anamorphic reference - relating current expression to earlier one, referring expression is an anaphor and previous referent is an antecedent, most interesting top psychs because understanding discourse requires holding antecedent in memory long enough to link it to the anaphor, creating a burden for comprehension -cataphoric reference- using expressions to point forward
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Strategies Used to Establish Coherence - given information -info that an author or speaker assumes the reader/listener already knows - new information - info the comprehender is assumed to not know Given/new strategy -assumes the process of understanding a sentence in discourse context consists of 3 stages -1. identify the given and new info in the current sentence
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chap 7 notes - Ch 7 reading summary Discourse Comprehension...

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