chap 4 notes

chap 4 notes - PSYC 340 Psychology of Language Chapter 4:...

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PSYC 340 – Psychology of Language Chapter 4: Perception of Language Main Points : P. 69 Introduction : o Phonological level of language comprehension o Speech is temporal, print is spatial The Structure of Speech: o It is a complex task for listeners to categorize the sounds that they hear into one of the many classes of sounds that exist in their language, for 2 reasons: 1. The environmental context often interferes w/ the speech signal (70) 2. Variability of the speech signal itself. Prosodic Factors: o Prosodic factors/suprasegmentals are factors such as intonation, rate, stress that are superimposed on speech segments. o Ferreira: Prosidy = “a general term that refers to the aspects of an utterance’s sound that are not specific to the words themselves.” (70). o Prosodic factors change the overall meaning of an utterance. o Stress = the emphasis given to syllables in a sentence. o Intonation refers to the use of pitch to signify different meanings. o Intonational contour = the pitch pattern of a sentence (70). o The pitch emphasized the main focus of the speaker’s sentence (71). o Rate = the speed @ which speech is articulated. This sometimes conveys meaning. o Suprasegmentals are aspects of speech that lie over speech segments (phones). Articulatory Phonetics: o Phonetics = the study of speech sounds o Articulatory phonetics = study of the pronunciation of speech sounds o the sounds of a language can be described in terms of the movement of the physical structures of the vocal tract. o Air is emitted from lungs and passes over the vocal cords & into the oral or nasal cavity. o Vowels are produced by letting air flow unobstructed from the lungs. o Consonants are produced by impeding the airflow at some point. o Place of articulation: bilabial = articulated @ lips Alveolar = placing tongue against alveolar ridge Velar = . Tongue is placed against velum at back of mouth. o Manner of articulation: Stop consonants = completely obstruct airflow for a period of time, then release it.
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Fricative = produced by obstruction that doesn’t completely stop airflow. Affricate = produced by a stop-like closure that is followed by the slow release characteristics of fricatives. o Voicing : Glottis = opening between the vocal cords Voiced speech sound = when the cords are together, the airstream must force its way through the glottis which causes vocal cords to vibrate. Voiceless sound = when the cords are separated, the air is not obstructed. o Vowels are distinguished in terms of degree of frontness/backness and in terms of tongue height. Front, center, back High, mid, low tongue height o Can describe each phonetic segment in terms of its distinctive features (73-4). Acoustic Phonetics:
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chap 4 notes - PSYC 340 Psychology of Language Chapter 4:...

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