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chap 5 notes - Chapter 5 The Internal Lexicon MAIN POINTS...

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Chapter 5 The Internal Lexicon MAIN POINTS When we know a word, we its phonological, morphological, syntactic, and semantic attributes. A word’s meaning includes both sense and reference. Sense refers to a word’s relationships with other words, whereas reference pertains to the relationships between a word and an object or event in the world. The organization of word knowledge in permanent memory is called the internal lexicon . In a semantic network, words are represented as nodes and are connected via relations to other words in the network. The process by which we activate our word knowledge is termed lexical access . Lexical access is influenced by the frequency of a word, its phonological and morphological attributes, whether it is ambiguous and whether a semantically similar word has just been encountered. Dimensions of Word Knowledge What does it mean to know a word? -There is more to word knowledge than meaning. Phonological Knowledge - One part of word knowledge is phonological structure or pronunciation of words. For example we know when 2 words are spelled differently but sounds alike (Homophones) as in bear and bare . - We experience TOT – Tip of the Tongue phenomenon when we are not successful at retrieving a word but can remember something about how it sounds. - In a study, persons presented with definitions of infrequent words like sextant , and asked the defined word. When subjects where in the TOT state they retrieved but rejected similar-sounding words like secant . Thus, we sometimes activate words by their sounds.
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Syntactic Knowledge Part of Syntactic category – or part of speech, to which words belong. Two words belong to the same syntactic category when they can substitute for one another in a sentence. (1) the aging pianist stunned the audience Aging can be replaced by any number of words such as, poor, fat, wealthy, etc. One advantage of using the categories is that we can formulate rules in terms of categories rather than lexical items (words). Traditionally, syntactical categories were recognized as noun, verb, adjective, adverb, conjunction, interjection, pronoun, and preposition. From a psychological standpoint we can place them into 2 categories; open-class words (content words) include nouns, verbs, adjectives, and adverbs and close-class words (function words) include determiners, pronouns, prepositions, conjunctions and interjections. Agrammatism: neurological illness: where patients omit closed-class words from their sentences while preserving open-class words somewhat better. Main Point: Syntactic categories are included in the lexical entries in our mental lexicon. Morphological Knowledge Morphemes= smallest unit of meaning in a language Some words consist only one morpheme.
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