chap 3 notes

chap 3 notes - CHAPTER 3: PSYCHOLOGICAL MECHANISMS...

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C HAPTER 3: P SYCHOLOGICAL M ECHANISMS I NTRODUCTION In this chapter discussing the psychological mechanisms that are involved in using language Language processing is a joint product of linguistic principles and psychological mechanisms T HE I NFORMATION P ROCESSING S YSTEM First studies of memory performed in the late 19 th century William James anticipated the contemporary distinction between working and long term memory which he called primary and secondary memory Contemporary study of memory began in the late 1950s and the field of memory study and language study have exerted a synergistic effect on one and other ever since Working Memory Working memory “the temporary storage of information that is being processed in any range of cognitive tasks” Memory span test measure of memory. Participants are given a series of items and are asked to recall the items in the order presented. A person’s memory span is the number of items that can be reliably recalled in the correct order The Baddeley-Hitch Model The Baddeley-Hitch Model proposed in 1974 by Baddeley and Hitch and revised several times since Phonological loop consists of the phonological store and the articulatory rehearsal system The phonological store holds phonological representations for a period of time The articulatory rehearsal system enables us to covertly or overtly rehearse material When visual material such as printed letters are presented we may convert them into phonological representations and thus hold them in the phonological store The visuospatial sketchpad temporarily maintains and manipulates visuospatial information. This is the system that allows us to form visual images Central executive was initially conceived as a limited capacity pool of general processing resources. Assumed that the central executive exerts executive control, it determines what activities the slave systems should be doing at any given time Tests of the Model The model predicts that when people make errors in working memory tasks, the errors tend to be in the direction of similar sounds If a person had to remembers letters while at the same time speaking some sounds over and over again the tasks would occupy the articulatory loop thus reducing the possibility that the 1
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loop can be used to rehearse the letters to be remembered. This task leads to articulatory suppression which leads to reduced memory and in particular a reduction in similar sound errors Word-length effect the number of words remembered in a memory span study are related to the length of the words. Turns out that it is the pronunciation time of the words that is critical Word length effect suggests that working memory relies on a speech like mode of representation People who have lost the ability to control their speech muscles retain their inner speech and hence display working memory. In contrast individuals with brain damage that impairs
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This note was uploaded on 04/22/2008 for the course PSYC 403 taught by Professor ? during the Spring '08 term at McGill.

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chap 3 notes - CHAPTER 3: PSYCHOLOGICAL MECHANISMS...

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