chap 2 notes

chap 2 notes - Chapter 2: Linguistic Principles General...

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Chapter 2:  Linguistic Principles General Assumptions:   All languages possess a grammar which is characterized by a  duality of patterning , and  linguistic productivity  and also possesses specific rules  for determining the  morphology  of words and the  syntax  of  linguistic constituents Sentences in any language have both a  surface  and  deep structure  which can be  accounted for by a grammar which specifies how linguistic constituents can be  manipulated. Main Questions: Do linguistic principles, transformational grammar, etc. have “psychological  reality”?  Is our grammatical knowledge better described in structural or lexical terms? Is (implicit) linguistic knowledge innate? How Languages Are Different:  Word-order (English-SVO, Japanese-SOV, Russian,  Latin, Turkish etc. much more flexible), degree of affix use (suffix/prefix/infix/circumfix),  inclusion of tense, gender, intentionality etc. How Languages Are Alike (central concepts):   duality of patterning,  morphology, phrase structure, linguistic productivity.   These concepts are central to any  grammatical (grammar-based) description of language 1. Duality of patterning:   the idea that human language is unique from other  communication forms b/c it is composed of a large number of meaningful/semantic  units: words, composed of a small number of meaningless/asemantic units: speech  sounds/phonemes in spoken language, sign parameters in American Sign Language  ( ASL ) 2. Morphology:   The system of rules that governs how different semantic components  can be combined into words.  Certain components can stand alone while others must  be affixed.  Bound (affixed) morphemes can convey many types of meaning, depending  on the language: tense, aspect, gender, etc. In sign language, variations in sign motion  convey the difference between first/second person, number, aspect, reciprocity, etc.
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3. Phrase Structure:   a manner of grammatical description which uses rules to  account for the surface structure of sentences, which base grammaticality on rules  governing the manipulation of  linguistic constituents  (such as noun phrases, verb  phrases, determiners, etc.) rather than individual words.  Structures are composed of  constituent phrases assembled according to particular rules. 4. Linguistic Productivity:  A principle emphasized by Chomsky and others, as  the most unique capacity of human grammar, allowing for flexible changing lexicons and  generative grammatical rules which are open-ended in content.  The  recursive  property of language  which allows phrases to be nested a theoretically unlimited 
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This note was uploaded on 04/22/2008 for the course PSYC 403 taught by Professor ? during the Spring '08 term at McGill.

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chap 2 notes - Chapter 2: Linguistic Principles General...

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