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ELLmﬁi-AWC’LJ . 5K : ”at '” 2-“ (TA? Effective Communication through TA
Prepared by Ch Bala-Swamy We can communicate well with other people if we understand their behavioral pattern at that particul:
time TA was ﬁrst develOped by Canadian-born US psychiatrist, Eric Beme, starting in the late 19505. Accordir
to the International Transactional Analysis Association, TA 'is a theory of personality and a systemat-
psychotherapy for personal growth and personal change'. Ego State- At any given time, a person experiences and manifests their personality through a mixture t
behaviors, thoughts and feelings. Typically, according to TA, there are three ego-states that people consistently use: . Parent: A state in which people behave, feel, and think in response to an unconscious mimicking t
how their parents (or otherparental ﬁgures) acted, or how they interpreted their parent's actions. Ft
example, a person may shout at someone out of frustration because they learned from an inﬂuenti:
ﬁgure in childhood the lesson that this seemed to be a way of relating that worked. . Adult: A state of the ego which is most like computer processing information and makin
predictions absent of major emotions that could affect its operation. Learning to strengthen th
Adult is a goal of TA. While a person is in the Adult ego state, hefshe is directed towards a
objective appraisal of reality. ‘ . Child: a state in which people behave, feel and think similarly to how they did in childhood. F'c
example, a person who receives a poor evaluation at work may respond by looking at the floor, an
crying or pouting, as they used to when scolded as a child. Conversely, a person who receives good evaluation may respdnd with a broad smile and a joyful gesture of thanks. The Child is th
source of emotions, creation, recreation, spontaneity and intimacy.
There are basically three kinds of transactions: 1. Reciprocal/Complementary (the simplest)
2. Crossed q 3. Duplex/Covert/ulterior (the most complex) Reciprocal or Complementary transactions: A simple, reciprocal transaction occurs when both partner
are addressing the ego state the other is in. These are also called complementary transactions.
Example 1: A: "Have you been able to write the report?" (Adult to Adult) _B: "Yes — I'm about to email it to you." (Adult to Adult) Communication like this can continue indeﬁnitely. (Clearly it will stop at some stage - but thi
psychologically balanced exchange of strokes can continue for some time) Crossed transactions: Communication failures are typically caused by a 'crossed transaction' when partners address ego states other than that their partner is in. COnsider the above examples jumbled up a bit
Emmple Ia: A: "Have you been able to write that report?" (Adult to Adult) 8: "Will you stop hassling me? I'll do it eventually!" (Child to Parent) This is a crossed transaction likely to produce problems in the workplace. A may respond with a Parent tr
Child transaction. For instance: " A: "If you don't change your attitude, you‘ll get ﬁred."
Example 20: A: "is your room tidy yet?" (Parent to Child) B: "l'mjust going to do it, actually." (Adult to Adult)
This is a more positive crossed transaction. There is however the risk that A will feel aggrieved that B i:
acting responsibly and not playing their role, and the conversation will develop into: A: "I can never trust you to do things!" (Parent to Child) B: "Why don’t you believe anything I say?" (Child to Parent)
which can continue indeﬁnitely. Duplex / Covert I ulterior transactions: Another cl ...
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- Fall '16
- sumanth tadepalli