Chapter 11 - Motivation and Emotion Lecture Overview-Theories and Concepts of Motivation -Motivation and Behavior -Theories and Concepts of Emotion -Critical Thinking about Motivation and Emotion Important Definitions Motivation : set of factors that activate, direct, and maintain behavior, usually toward some goal Theories and Concepts of Motivation: (Major Theories of Motivation) Biological Theories: 1. Instinct--inborn, unlearned behaviors universal to species explain motivation 2. Drive-Reduction--internal tensions “push” toward satisfying basic needs 3. Arousal--motivated toward optimal level of arousal- People seek an optimal level of arousal that maximizes their performance. Drive Reduction Theory Arousal Theory Psychosocial Theories: 1. Incentive-motivation results from the “pull” of external environmental stimuli 2. Cognitive-motivation affected by attributions and expectations. Biopsychosocial Theory: 1. Maslow’s hierarchy of needs : interaction of biological, psychological, and social needs; lower motives (physiological and safety) must be met before higher needs (belonging, self-esteem) Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs Motivation and Behavior— Hunger and Eating Biological factors : stomach, biochemistry, the brain Note the size difference in the rats. The rat on the left had the
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