Chapter 13 – Psychological Disorders Studying Psychological Disorders Abnormal Behavior : patterns of emotion, thought, and action considered pathological for one or more of four reasons: - statistical infrequency: - disability or dysfunction - personal distress - violation of norms Studying Psychological Disorders (Continued) Historical perspectives:-In ancient times, people believed demons were the cause of abnormal behavior. -In the 1790s, Pinel and others began to emphasize disease and physical illness, which later developed into the medical model . Modern psychology includes seven major perspectives on abnormal behavior. Biological, Sociocultural, Behavioral, Evolutionary, Humanistic, Psychoanalytic/ Psychodynamic, Cognitive Studying Psychological Disorders: Classifying Abnormal Behavior The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders ( DSM-IV-TR ):-provides detailed descriptions of symptoms-contains over 200 diagnostic categories grouped into 17 major categories and five dimensions (or axes) Five Axes of DSM-IV-TR (guidelines for making decisions about symptoms) Axis I (transient/on-going/current clinical disorders) Axis II (personality disorders and mental retardation) Axis III (general medical information) Axis IV (psychosocial and environmental problems) Axis V (global assessment of functioning) Anxiety Disorders
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