Chapter 8 War and Strife - Chapter 8 War and Strife 1...

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Chapter 8 War and Strife 1. Ancient Melos a. State is ultimately responsible for its own security b. State exists in an anarchic system, with no overarching authority c. State relies on self help 2. Security Dilemma a. In the absence of centralized authority one states becoming more secure diminishes another states security b. Becomes a vicious circle of power accumulation c. There is a permanent cause of tension and power conflicts 3. Causes of War - levels of analysis a. Individual- realist and liberal i. War occurs because of the personal characteristics of major leaders ii. Liberal- 1. Misperceptions by leaders- seeing aggressiveness where it may not be intended, attributing actions of one to a group; a. Exaggerating the hostility of the adversary iii. Realist- 1. Masses- the characteristics of the masses lead to the outbreak of war a. Innate human characteristics lead to war b. State and Society i. Liberal- 1. republican regimes are least likely to wage warm theory of democratic peace 2. some types of economic systems are more war prone than others, liberal states are more likely to be capitalist, 3. Liberal capitalists will avoid war because it will mess up trade, block profits and cause inflation ii. Radical- 1. Liberal capitalism leads to competition among social classes, stagnation and the eventual collapse of capitalism and search for other markets 2. Scapegoats are found to take the mind of the economic situations c. International System i. Realist 1. The anarchic international system is governed only by a weak overarching rule of law, which is easily dispensed with when states determine it is in their self-interest to do so 2. Power transition theory- it is not just the inequality of capabilities among states that lead to war, it is changes in the state capabilities that lead to war a. War is caused by the changing distribution of power
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among states that occurs because of uneven rates of economic development ii. Radical- 1. Dominant capitalist states within the international system need to expand economically, leading to wars with developing nations or other developed nations for control of developing nations 4. Yugoslavia a. Individual- Milosevic rhetoric galvanized Serbians against other ethnic groups; promoted ethnic divisions b. State/society- ethnic groups blamed others for economic hardship and the groups were split even more c. International- States outside fueled the fire; no international arbiter could do anything 5. International Intervention a. UN peacekeepers sent to end ethnic cleansing and deliver aid b. UN replaced by NATO, NATO went in to i. Enforce zones of separation ii. Expel foreign forces iii. Negotiate local arms control agreements
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