section 1 Notes

section 1 Notes - Anthropology Notes Sahelanthropas 7...

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Anthropology Notes 9/12/07 Sahelanthropas – 7 million years ago Orrorin – missing link? – 6 million years ago Australopicines afarensis – between 6 million and 2 million years ago in East Africa 2 million years ago – first fossil specimens of homo habilis (“handy man” – tool user); species that begins tradition of using tools to butcher other animals o Change in diet from vegetarian to meat (high protein) that increased human brain size 1.5 million years ago – first potential human ancestor found outside Africa From 2 mya to 500kya, the human brain enlarged by a factor of 3 to 4, and peaked 200kya with Neanderthals (with larger brains than our own – not part of same species though) Modern humans developed 100kya, Neanderthals went extinct 25kya Body – the greater gut for more vegetables means more energy needed for carrying/digesting; more protein = more energy for thinking rather than for body Homo erectus (previous name), now Homo ergaster o Found in Africa that were proceeding towards a larger brain size, around 1.5mya o Clearly demonstrate descent towards modern day humans with the shape of the body o Lower limbs reorganized, allocation of neural tissue/space to lungs (homo vs. australopicines adaptation) Adapted to environment – extremely large, long distance travel, (long range endurance runner); 4 legs = speed, 2 legs = endurance Nariokotome – homo erectus boy preserved 1.7mya
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