section 2 anthr notes (2)

section 2 anthr notes (2) - 9/24/07 Kung o o Kalahari...

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9/24/07 Kung o Kalahari region of Botswana o Foraging ecology – living off the environment without changing it Foraged up until the 70s o Live in a region that can have a lot of rainfall or a drought o Agricultural ecology – people have to alter their environment to upgrade and make predictable the productivity of the environment John Marshall o Did films from the 50s on documenting the Kung and their shift from foraging ecology to agriculture Upper Paleolithic – spread of AMH’s throughout globe o Sweep of changes in archeological record – human organization underwent radical change – homo sapien = dominant form of human o Super hunters – can exist on hunting animals/sea mammals Projectiles (stick – spear thrower (atlatl), bow/arrow, (miniaturization – focus on smaller prey like birds, small game), o Mesolithic – miniaturization; smaller stone tools, smaller animals, vegetable foods Milling and grinding Wide spectrum (hunting and gathering) Large animals go extinct, so need wide spectrum Women specialized in vegetable foods, men in hunting food
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o Parties/social occasions Curing (shamans) Coming into contact that can provide protection and well-being for the group Altered states of consciousness Shaman /Gunda of !Kung with wife N!ai. Neolithic revolution o Emergence of agricultural ecology – humans were able to settle down Humans adapted themselves to travel great distances and reach all parts of the world Bushman lang: “clicks” or implosive consonants o Different than any other language in the world o Perhaps a survival/reflection of early human language o All other humans use explosive consonants Area of the world with most genetic diversity: Africa o Leads to conclusion that this is where AMH’s developed VIsuographic memory o Interpreting cave paintings found in paleoloitic MOVIE Venus De Sassin-Oui – little carved head from 25,000 years ago Team exploring a cave in Bordeaux o Many remains from animals, had cut marks on them from tools In French foothills, see cave drawings from the same time as bones, a footprint, painted horses
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South African foothills o Cave paintings similar to those found in France depicting animals and life o Human figures, but with unhuman heads, and imitating dying elins Bushmen from a few hundred years ago did similar cave paintings o Anthropologists hope that observing bushmen will tell them about people from 25,000 years ago Until recently, Kalahari desert inhabited only by tribes of Bushmen o They no longer live by hunting in the old way, but their beliefs are still traditiona o They never made paintings bet were living fairly traditional lifestyles o Shamanic ritual – dancing to summon power of the elin o Paintings may emulate rituals like those of the bushmen People going into trances, removed from modern world o See geometric shapes o Certain parts of the brain light up during hallucinations
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This note was uploaded on 02/27/2008 for the course ANTH 263g taught by Professor Seaman during the Fall '07 term at USC.

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section 2 anthr notes (2) - 9/24/07 Kung o o Kalahari...

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