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Psych of Food Test 3

Psych of Food Test 3 - Psych of Food Test 3 Chapter 8...

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Psych of Food Test 3 Chapter 8: Obesity Defining obesity 1- population means a. exploring mean weights within a specific population and deciding whether someone is below average weight, average, or above average weight in terms of percentage over weight for a given height b. depends on population being considered c. not used for adults anymore. Still used for children 2- Body mass index a. Calculated using the equation weight/height b. Normal weight= 18.5-24.9 c. Overweight= 25-29.9 d. Obese= 30-39.9 e. Severely obese= 40+ f. Most frequently used g. Does not allow for differences between muscle and fat- a body builder would be defined as obese 3- Waist circumference a. Weight circumference on its own has become preferred approach b. Waist reduction recommended when greater than 102cm in men and 88 cm in women 4- Percentage body fat a. Assessing skin fold thickness using calipers b. Done on upper arm and upper and lower back c. Not suitable for severely obese d. Misses abdominal fat How common is obesity? - on the increase in UK - US- half American adults are overweight and 1/3 obese - Women have grown heavier in US - Prevalence of overweight children has doubled in the past 20 years in US - Higher in working class women - Lower in vegetarians and smokers of both sex Consequences - Physical o Cardiovascular disease, diabetes, joint trauma, back pain, cancer, hypertension and mortality o Weight carried in abdomen is more detrimental to your health - Psychological o Low self esteem bc our culture has an obsession with thinness and an aversion to obesity
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o 1/5 of group waiting for gastric bypass surgery reported having at least one period of clinical depression o Individuals who had lost weight following surgery stated they would rather be deaf, have heart disease etc than being heavy again o Large scale study showed being overweight is unrelated to depression o Individuals who were dieting to lose weight- the attempt to lose weight was more distressing than the weight itself Causes of obesity - Genetic theories o Probability that children will be overweight is related to their parents weight o 1 obese parent= 40% chance of child being overweight o 2= 80% o 7% chance that thin parents will have an overweight child o Twin studies: identical twins reared apart More similar in weight than non-identical twins reared together 66-70% of varience in weight is due to genetic factors Environment has little to no influence o Adoptee studies Strong relationship between adoptee and biological parent weight and no relationship to adoptive parent - Metabolic rate theory o Body uses energy to carry out chemical and biological processes o Rate at which energy is used= resting metabolic rate o Highly heritable o Theory of obesity= obese may ha lower metabolic rates, that they burn up fewer calories when they are resting, and therefore require less food intake to carry on living o Research= people that gained substantial amount of weight were the ones with the lowest metabolic rates at the beginning of the study o
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Psych of Food Test 3 - Psych of Food Test 3 Chapter 8...

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