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Microanatomy Test 2

Microanatomy Test 2 - Microanatomy Test 2 Cartilage Cell...

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Microanatomy Test 2 Cartilage Cell types - Proteoglycans = class of glycoproteins found in the ground substance of cartilage in the extracellular matrix- filler substance - Chondroblasts = rounded cartilage precursor cells that form from the differentiation of stellate-shaped, primitive mesenchymal cells. Divisions of mesenchymal cells give rise to aggregations of closely packed chondroblasts. o Synthesize ground substance and extracellular material o Secretions trap the chondroblast within the cartilaginous matrix o Each chondroblast then undergoes two further mitotic divisions to form a small cluster of mature cells separated by a small amount of extracellular material= chondrocytes - Chondrocytes = mature cartilage cells o Maintain integrity of the cartilage matrix o Surrounded by a layer called perichondrium- composed of collagen fibers and spindle shaped cells o Can transform into chondroblasts and form new cartilage by appositional growth o Mature cartilage has limited capacity to repair and regenerate (poor blood supply) Hyaline Cartilage - Matrix (amorphous and glassy) o Collagen II o Hyaluronic acid o Chondroitin sulfate o Keratin sulfate - Fibers- collagenous o Invisible due to same refractive index as matrix - Locations o Intercostals- connect ribs to sternum o Wall of trachea and bronchi o Articular cartilage of bone o Epiphyseal plate o Fetal axial skeleton - most common type of cartilage - characterized by small aggregations of chondrocytes embedded in an amporphous matrix of ground substance reinforced by collagen fibers - perichondrium composed of parallel collagen fibers containing a few spindle- shaped nuclei of inactive fibrocytes
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- not cross banded but arranges in an interlacing network of fine fibrils Fibrocartilage - consists of alternating layers of hyaline cartilage matrix and thick layers of dense collagen fibers - has features intermediate between cartilage and dense fibrous supporting tissue - resistant to compression and shear forces - Locations o Intervertebral discs o Pubic symphysis o Attach tendons to bone o Meniscus of knee joint Elastic Cartilage - has numerous bundles of branching elastic fibers in the cartilage matrix- dense in the immediate vicinity of the chondrocytes - collagen is the major constituent of the cartilage matrix and makes up the bulk of the perichondrium - growth occurs by interstitial and appositional - location o external ear o external auditory canal o the epiglottis o parts of the larynx o walls of the Eustachian tubes
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Articular cartilage - type of hyaline cartilage - provides support at one end plates
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Bone Cells - osteoblasts = synthesize osteoid and mediate its mineralization. Found lined up along bone surfaces o derived from a primitive mesenchymal cell (stem cell) - osetocytes = represent large inactive osteoblasts trapped within formed bone. They may assist in nutrition of the bone o derived from a primitive mesenchymal cell (stem cell) - osteoclasts = phagocytic cells which are capable or eroding bone and which are
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