Study Guide for the Final Exam

Study Guide for the Final Exam - Study Guide for the Final...

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Study Guide for the Final Exam Lecture Material All lectures Book Chapters Chapters 1-7, 9-11, 14 of Understanding Biotechnology National Geographic Article, Nano's Big Future Chapters 2-11 of Energy Switch Important concepts 1. Length scales and sizes of things such as small molecules (like water), proteins, viruses, bacteria, transistors, hair, organisms, etc. 2. Biomimetics o basic concept- Strategy based on principles of biological design. o advantages for future technology o self-organization - Natures approach to fabrication that is parallel to ours but on a much smaller scale 3. Biotechnology o definition – Production of commercial products generated by the metabolic action of biological organisms o examples – pharmaceuticals; modified crops; disease resistant livestock o traditional- selective livestock breeding; plant grafting o modern (molecular)- Direct genetic control of functional organisms 4. Polymers o basic definition- Very large molecules that are made up of smaller parts (monomers) that can be linked together by covalent bonds o examples- polyethylene; polyvinylchloride; Teflon o basic structures- linear homopolymer most common, polymers containing more than one monomer are called copolymers 5. Biomolecules o important examples: DNA, RNA, proteins o basic structure and sizes- either single stranded and coiled or double stranded helix. o self-organization into specific structures- interactions between monomers lead to molecular organization, conformations are not random o DNA structure and hybridization- DNA organizes itself into helixes by attaching itself to complementary strands of DNA (hybridization) 6. Cellular machinery o factory cells: bacteria, yeast, etc. o gene concept – structure function o universal genetic code- all organisms use the same genetic code o codons- three nucleotide combinations (ata; gcg; aat)
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o central dogma- the detailed residue-by-residue transfer of sequential information, it states such information cannot be transferred back from protein to either protein or nucleic acid. o transcription process-The code from the gene is copied by creating a piece of messenger RNA (mRNA) that contains the code. o Translation-The piece of mRNA is used as a template by a ribosome to create the protein. 7. Genetic engineering o Cutting DNA- restriction endonuclease enzymes cut up DNA at specific, recognized locations, generally palindromic sequences. Sticky ends formed by restriction enzymes help hold fragments in place temporarily, but DNA ligase enzyme is necessary to truly glue the new dsDNA together o joining with DNA ligase-The compound that permanently attaches dsDNA together o transformation:- Alteration of a cell resulting from the induction of foreign DNA, inserting DNA constructs into bacteria. o
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Study Guide for the Final Exam - Study Guide for the Final...

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