malaria_cfksv - American Economic Journal Applied Economics 2(April 2010 7294 http/www.aeaweb.org/articles.php?doi=10.1257/app.2.2.72 Early-life Malaria

malaria_cfksv - American Economic Journal Applied Economics...

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72 American Economic Journal: Applied Economics 2 (April 2010): 72–94 = 10.1257/app.2.2.72 M alaria, a disease that has afflicted humans for more than 10,000 years ( Frederick L. Dunn 2003 ) , today infects some 300 million people and kills 1 million each year ( Jeffrey D. Sachs 2001 ) . Despite important advances in the control of malaria during the twentieth century, the disease remains stubbornly prevalent throughout much of the world. Faced with this huge global burden, international organizations have redoubled their efforts to combat the disease. Many argue that improving health, while important in itself, can also lead to higher economic growth and development. John Luke Gallup and Sachs ( 2001 ) show that falciparum malaria endemicity is negatively correlated with economic growth across countries. 1 In contrast, Daron Acemoglu and Simon Johnson ( 2007 ) argue that the wave of international health innovations that began in the 1940s did not lead 1 Other macroeconomic studies, such as those by David E. Bloom and David Canning ( 2005 ) and George A. O. Alleyne and Daniel Cohen ( 2002 ) , also conclude that improvements in health can lead to higher economic growth. * Cutler: Department of Economics, Harvard University, 1805 Cambridge Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 ( e-mail: [email protected] ) ; Fung: Department of Economics, Harvard University, 1805 Cambridge Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 ( e-mail: [email protected] ) ; Kremer: Department of Economics, Harvard University, 1805 Cambridge Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 ( e-mail: [email protected] ) ; Singhal: John F. Kennedy School of Government, Harvard University, 79 John F. Kennedy Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 ( e-mail: monica_ [email protected] ) ; Vogl: Department of Economics, Harvard University, 1805 Cambridge Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 ( e-mail: [email protected] ) . We are grateful to the National Malaria Eradication Program of India for its generous assistance, to Petia Topalova for help with the National Sample Survey, to Scott Walker for help with the GIS, and to Lakshmi Iyer for making available her data on agriculture in Indian districts. We also thank participants of the Center for International Development Conference on Health Improvements for Economic Growth, the Harvard Initiative on Global Health seminar series, and three anonymous reviewers for their comments. Vogl thanks the NSF for support. † To comment on this article in the online discussion forum, or to view additional materials, visit the articles page at = 10.1257/app.2.2.72. Early-life Malaria Exposure and Adult Outcomes: Evidence from Malaria Eradication in India By David Cutler, Winnie Fung, Michael Kremer, Monica Singhal, and Tom Vogl* We examine the effects of exposure to malaria in early childhood on educational attainment and economic status in adulthood by exploiting geographic variation in malaria prevalence in India prior to a nationwide eradication program in the 1950s. We find that the program led to modest increases in household per capita consump- tion for prime age men, and the effects for men are larger than those for women in most specifications. We find no evidence of increased
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