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Chapter 17 – Anxiety Disorders

Chapter 17 – Anxiety Disorders - Chapter 17[1 Chapter 17...

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Chapter 17 [1] Chapter 17 – Anxiety Disorders, Autistic Disorder, Attention- Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder, and Stress Disorders Anxiety Disorders A psychological disorder characterized by tension, over activity of the autonomic nervous system, expectation of an impending disaster, and continuous vigilance for danger I. Panic Disorder a. Description i. Panic disorder – a disorder characterized by episodic periods of symptoms such as shortness of breath, irregularities in heartbeat, and other autonomic symptoms, accompanied by intense fear ii. Women more likely to get it than men iii. Basic symptoms of panic attack iv. Anxiety is usually normal, feelings form a panic attack are not v. Anticipatory anxiety – a fear of having a panic attack; may lead to the development of agoraphobia vi. Agoraphobia – a fear of being away from home or other protected places b. Possible Causes i. Because physical symptoms are overwhelming patients reject suggestions that they have a mental disorder and insist that their problem is medical ii. Biological origin iii. It is hereditary iv. Injections of lactic acid or yohimbine, ingesting caffeine, and breathing carbon dioxide v. Previously treated by a combination of behavior therapy and benzodiazepine vi. Benzo. Agonist binds increases sensitivity of GABA binding site and produces an anxiolytic effect vii. Anxiety disorders may be caused by a diminished number of benzo receptors or by the secretion of a neuromodulator that blocks the benzo binding site at the GABA receptor viii. Evidence for reduction in GABA receptors in the brains of patients with a panic disorder ix. Serotonin may play a role in anxiety disorders, SSRIs are used to treat disorders x. 5-HT1A receptors are important too 1. Development time also with these receptors are important xi. Short alleles for 5-HTT also show higher levels of anxiety xii. Decrease in frontal cortex of panicked patients II. Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder a. A mental disorder characterized by obsessions and compulsions b. Description i. Obsession – an unwanted thought or idea with which a person is
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Chapter 17 [2] preoccupied ii. Compulsion – the feeling that one is obliged to perform a behavior, even if one prefers not to do so iii. People with OCD recognize that their thoughts and behaviors are senseless and desperately wish they would go away iv. Females are more likely than males to have this diagnosis v. People with the disorder are unlikely to marry vi. Compulsions: counting, checking, cleaning, and avoidance vii. Species-typical behaviors viii. Evidence suggests that the symptoms of OCD represent an exaggeration of natural human tendencies c. Possible Causes i. Genetic origin – chromosome 9 ii. Associated with Tourette’s syndrome – a neurological disorder characterized by tics and involuntary vocalizations and sometimes by compulsive uttering of obscenities and repetition of the utterances of others iii. Not all cases of OCD have genetic origin; disorder can occur after
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